Icebreaking technology has been improved over the last 10–15 yr so that the installed power of icebreaking ships could be drastically reduced. The improvement is demonstrated on four examples of icebreaking ships, one conventional and three advanced concepts, which have shown their icebreaking ability already in full scale. The icebreaking capability of ships is suggested to be evaluated through model tests, theoretical approach and by full-scale measurements. The evaluation should be carried out for various ice conditions by resistance and self-propulsion tests. Finally, some thoughts are presented on features of an advanced icebreaker.

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