This paper discusses the importance of environmental driving forces in determining ice loads on Arctic offshore structures. Limits to the environmental driving force in a first-year ice field are analyzed by considering models of ridge formation, wind and current driving forces, and irregularities such as leads and tidal cracks. Average driving forces are estimated to be approximately 10–50 kips/ft for far-field, with some local concentration near fixed structures. These order of magnitude estimates are sufficiently less than failure loads for many ice features to indicate that limited driving force approach may reduce estimated ice loads on Arctic structures.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.