This study investigates the heat transport mechanism in semiconductor elements within a homogeneous thermoelectric cooling system using the dual-phase-lag (DPL) model. The thermal lagging behavior is analyzed and explored during the energy transport process. The coupled energy and constitutive partial differential equations are solved simultaneously to reduce the complexity of the high-order spatial and time derivatives. This approach simplifies the mathematical solution process and reduces numerical instabilities when compared to the conventional methodology in which either the temperature or heat flux is solved individually with a single equation. The effect of the thermal lagging behavior on energy transport is examined and compared to results by using the Cattaneo–Vernotte model. Furthermore, the phase-lag behavior on the temperature and heat flux profiles is investigated in detail. This study provides perceptive information for engineering applications in which the microscale heat transport phenomenon plays a significant role during the design process. Adding the dual-phase-lag model to the traditional heat diffusion model is a complementary option for engineers in the thermoelectric industry.