Abstract

Electronic components in downhole oil drilling and gas industry applications, automotive, and avionics may be exposed to high temperatures (>150 °C) and high strain rates (1–100 per sec) during storage, operation, and handling, which can contribute to the failures of electronic devices. Temperatures in these applications can exceed 200 °C, which is close to melting point for SnAgCu (SAC) alloys. Prior studies at low strain rates have shown property evolution even under moderate exposure to high temperature. In this paper, the evolution of Anand parameters for unaged and aged SAC (SAC105 and SAC-Q) lead-free solder alloys at high strain rates has been investigated induced under sustained periods of thermal aging. The thermal aged lead-free SAC solder alloys specimen has been tested at high strain rates (10–75 per sec) at elevated temperatures of (25 °C–200 °C). The SAC lead-free solder samples were subjected to isothermal aging at 50 °C up to 1-year before testing. To describe the material constitutive behavior, the Anand Viscoplastic model has been used. The effect of thermal aging on Anand parameters also has been investigated. In order to verify the accuracy of the model, the computed Anand parameters have been used to simulate the uni-axial tensile test. The material constitutive behavior has been implemented in a finite element framework to simulate the drop events using the Anand constitutive model and determine the plastic work per shock event. The plastic work per shock event is a measure of the damage progression in the solder interconnects. The constitutive model has been used to simulate the shock event of a ball-grid array package on printed circuit board assembly.

References

References
1.
Eddy
,
D. S.
, and
Sparks
,
D. R.
,
1998
, “
Application of MEMS Technology in Automotive Sensors and Actuators
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
86
(
8
), pp.
1747
1755
.10.1109/5.704280
2.
Hattori
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Needs and Applications of High Temperature LSIs for Automotive Electronic Systems
,”
HITEN 99. Third European Conference on High Temperature Electronics (IEEE Cat. No. 99EX372), IEEE
,
Berlin, Germany
, July 7, pp.
37
43
.10.1109/HITEN.1999.827345
3.
Johnson
,
R. W.
,
Evans
,
J. L.
,
Jacobsen
,
P.
,
Thompson
,
J. R.
, and
Christopher
,
M.
,
2004
, “
The Changing Automotive Environment: High-Temperature Electronics
,”
IEEE Trans. Elect. Packag. Manuf.
,
27
(
3
), pp.
164
176
.10.1109/TEPM.2004.843109
4.
Watson
,
J.
, and
Castro
,
G.
,
2012
, “
High-Temperature Electronics Pose Design and Reliability Challenges
,”
Analogue Dialogue
,
46
(
2
), pp.
3
9
.https://www.analog.com/en/analog-dialogue/articles/high-temperature-electronic-pose-design-challenges.html#
5.
Darveaux
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Shear Deformation of Lead Free Solder Joints
,”
Proceedings Electronic Components and Technology, ECTC'05, IEEE
,
Lake Buena Vista, FL
, May 31–June 3, pp.
882
893
.10.1109/ECTC.2005.1441377
6.
Pang
,
H. L. J.
,
Wang
,
Y. P.
,
Shi
,
X. Q.
, and
Wang
,
Z. P.
,
1998
, “
Sensitivity Study of Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Properties on Solder Joint Fatigue Life
,”
Proceedings of Second Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (Cat. No. 98EX235), IEEE
, Singapore, Dec. 10, pp.
184
189
.10.1109/EPTC.1998.755999
7.
Wong
,
E. H.
,
Selvanayagam
,
C. S.
,
Seah
,
S. K. W.
,
van Driel
,
W. D.
,
Caers
,
J. F. J. M.
,
Zhao
,
X. J.
,
Owens
,
N.
,
Tan
,
L. C.
,
Frear
,
D. R.
,
Leoni
,
M.
,
Lai
,
Y.-S.
, and
Yeh
,
C.-L.
,
2008
, “
Stress–Strain Characteristics of Tin-Based Solder Alloys at Medium Strain Rate
,”
Mater. Lett.
,
62
(
17–18
), pp.
3031
3034
.10.1016/j.matlet.2008.01.101
8.
Suganuma
,
K.
,
Kim
,
S. J.
, and
Kim
,
K. S.
,
2009
, “
High-Temperature Lead-Free Solders: Properties and Possibilities
,”
Jom
,
61
(
1
), pp.
64
71
.10.1007/s11837-009-0013-y
9.
Cai
,
Z.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
,
Lall
,
P.
,
Johnson
,
R. W.
, and
Bozack
,
M. J.
,
2010
, “
Reduction of Lead Free Solder Aging Effects Using Doped SAC Alloys
,”
Proceedings 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
, June 1–4,
Las Vegas, NV
, pp.
1493
1511
.10.1109/ECTC.2010.5490796
10.
Matahir
,
M.
,
Chin
,
L. T.
,
Tan
,
K. S.
, and
Olofinjana
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Mechanical Strength and Its Variability in Bi-Modified Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloy
,”
J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng.
,
46
(
1
), pp.
50
56
.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mechanical-strength-and-its-variability-in-Bi-alloy-Matahir-Chin/2c4afbd9fcb4928a39b9e249d50e5085ad118151
11.
Witkin
,
D. B.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Microstructure on Mechanical Behavior of Bi-Containing Pb-Free Solders
,”
Proceedings of IPC APEX EXPO Conference and Exhibition
,
San Diego, CA
, Feb. 19–21, pp.
540
547
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287351710_Influence_of_microstructure_on_mechanical_behavior_of_Bi-containing_Pb-Free_solders
12.
Huang
,
M. L.
, and
Wang
,
L.
,
2005
, “
Effects of Cu, Bi, and in on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Sn-Ag-X (Cu, Bi, in) Solders
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
36
(
6
), pp.
1439
1446
.10.1007/s11661-005-0236-7
13.
Lee
,
J. H.
,
Kumar
,
S.
,
Kim
,
H. J.
,
Lee
,
Y. W.
, and
Moon
,
J. T.
,
2014
, “
High Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue and Drop Impact Resistant Ni-Bi Doped Lead Free Solder
,”
IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 27–30, pp.
712
716
.10.1109/ECTC.2014.6897362
14.
Manikam
,
V. R.
, and
Cheong
,
K. Y.
,
2011
, “
Die Attach Materials for High Temperature Applications: A Review
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol.
,
1
(
4
), pp.
457
478
.10.1109/TCPMT.2010.2100432
15.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Basit
,
M.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Characterization of Doped SAC Solder Materials and Determination of Anand Parameters
,”
ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48624
.10.1115/IPACK2015-48624
16.
Chowdhury
,
M. R.
,
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Fahim
,
A.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Mechanical Characterization of Doped SAC Solder Materials at High Temperature
,”
2016 15th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 31–June 3, pp.
1202
1208
.10.1109/ITHERM.2016.7517684
17.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2017
, “
The Anand Parameters of Aging Resistant Doped Solder Alloys
,”
2017 16th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 30–June 2, pp.
1416
1424
.10.1109/ITHERM.2017.7992647
18.
Lall
,
P.
,
Shantaram
,
S.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Aging on the High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC105 and SAC305 Leadfree Alloys
,”
2013 IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 28–31, pp.
1277
1293
.
19.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Zhang
,
D.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Shantaram
,
S.
,
2014
, “
High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC105 Leadfree Alloy at High Operating Temperatures
,”
14th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 27–30, pp.
161
169
.10.1109/ITHERM.2014.6892276
20.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2015
, “
A Study on the Evolution of the High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC105 Leadfree Alloy at High Operating Temperatures
,”
ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48389
.10.1115/IPACK2015-48389
21.
Lall
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
D.
, and
Suhling
,
J.
,
2015
, “
High Strain Rate Properties of SAC305 Leadfree Solder at High Operating Temperature After Long-Term Storage
,”
2015 IEEE 65th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
San Diego, CA
, May 26–29, pp.
640
651
.10.1109/ECTC.2015.7159659
22.
Lall
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
D.
,
Yadav
,
V.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2015
, “
High Strain-Rate Constitutive Behavior of sac105 and sac305 Leadfree Solder During Operation at High Temperature
,”
2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems
,
IEEE
,
Budapest, Hungary
, Apr. 19–22, pp.
1
11
.10.1109/EuroSimE.2015.7103168
23.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2016
, “
High Strain Rate Stress-Strain Measurement of SAC105 Leadfree Alloy at Temperatures Up to 200 °C
,”
2016 15th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 31–June 3, pp.
1225
1235
.10.1109/ITHERM.2016.7517687
24.
Lall
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
D.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Temperature on the High Strain Rate Properties of SAC Leadfree Alloys at Temperatures Up to 200 °C
,”
IEEE 66th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 31–June 3, pp.
1924
1932
.10.1109/ECTC.2016.397
25.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2017
, “
High Strain Rate Mechanical Behavior of SAC-Q Solder
,”
16th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 30–June 2, pp.
1447
1455
.10.1109/ITHERM.2017.7992650
26.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2018
, “
Anand Parameters for Modeling Prolonged Storage on High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC-Q Leadfree Solder at High Operating Temperature
,”
IEEE 68th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
San Diego, CA
, May 29–June 1, pp.
448
459
.10.1109/ECTC.2018.00073
27.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2018
, “
Effect of Prolonged Storage on High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC-Q Leadfree Solder at High Operating Temperature
,”
17th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
, May 29–June 1,
San Diego, CA
, pp.
1296
1308
.10.1109/ITHERM.2018.8419471
28.
Lall
,
P.
,
Yadav
,
V.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Locker
,
D.
,
2018
, “
Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of SAC-Q Leadfree Solder After High-Temperature Prolonged Storage
,”
ASME Paper No. IPACK2018-8357
.10.1115/IPACK2018-8357
29.
Fu
,
N.
,
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2017
, “
Visualization of Microstructural Evolution in Lead Free Solders During Isothermal Aging Using Time-Lapse Imagery
,”
IEEE 67th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 30–June 2, pp.
429
440
.10.1109/ECTC.2017.333
30.
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Basit
,
M.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Aging on SAC-Bi Solder Materials
,”
15th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 31–June 3, pp.
746
754
.10.1109/ITHERM.2016.7517621
31.
Anand
,
L.
,
1982
, “
Constitutive Equations for the Rate-Dependent Deformation of Metals at Elevated Temperatures
,”
J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
104
(
1
), pp.
12
17
.10.1115/1.3225028
32.
Bai
,
N.
,
Chen
,
X.
, and
Gao
,
H.
,
2009
, “
Simulation of Uniaxial Tensile Properties for Lead-Free Solders With Modified Anand Model
,”
Mater. Des.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
122
128
.10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.032
33.
Che
,
F. X.
,
Pang
,
H. L. J.
,
Zhu
,
W. H.
,
Sun
,
W.
, and
Sun
,
A. Y.
,
2006
, “
Modeling Constitutive Model Effect on Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
Seventh International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology
,
IEEE
,
Shanghai, China
, Aug. 26–29, pp.
1
6
.10.1109/ICEPT.2006.359842
34.
Chen
,
X.
,
Chen
,
G.
, and
Sakane
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Modified Anand Constitutive Model for Lead-Free Solder Sn-3.5 Ag
,”
Ninth Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena In Electronic Systems (IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37543)
,
IEEE
, Vol.
2
,
Las Vegas, NV
, June 1–4, pp.
447
452
.10.1109/ITHERM.2004.1318317
35.
Mysore
,
K.
,
Subbarayan
,
G.
,
Gupta
,
V.
, and
Zhang
,
R.
,
2009
, “
Constitutive and Aging Behavior of Sn3. 0Ag0. 5Cu Solder Alloy
,”
IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.
,
32
(
4
), pp.
221
232
.10.1109/TEPM.2009.2024119
36.
Qiang
,
W.
,
Lihua
,
L.
,
Xuefan
,
C.
,
Xiaohong
,
W.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Irving
,
S.
, and
Luk
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Experimental Determination and Modification of Anand Model Constants for Pb-Free Material 95.5 Sn4. 0Ag0. 5Cu
,”
International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation Experiments in Microelectronics and Micro-Systems, EuroSime 2007
,
IEEE
,
London, UK
, Apr. 16–18, pp.
1
9
.10.1109/ESIME.2007.359957
37.
Amagai
,
M.
,
Watanabe
,
M.
,
Omiya
,
M.
,
Kishimoto
,
K.
, and
Shibuya
,
T.
,
2002
, “
Mechanical Characterization of Sn–Ag-Based Lead-Free Solders
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
42
(
6
), pp.
951
966
.10.1016/S0026-2714(02)00017-3
38.
Motalab
,
M. A.
,
2013
, “
A Constitutive Model for Lead Free Solder Including Aging Effects and Its Application to Microelectronic Packaging
,”
Doctoral dissertation
,
Auburn University
,
Auburn, AL
.https://etd.auburn.edu/handle/10415/3818
39.
Yeung
,
T. S.
,
Sze
,
H.
,
Tan
,
K.
,
Sandhu
,
J.
,
Neo
,
C. W.
, and
Law
,
E.
,
2014
, “
Material Characterization of a Novel Lead-Free Solder Material—SACQ
,”
A IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
,
IEEE
,
Orlando, FL
, May 27–30, pp.
518
522
.10.1109/ECTC.2014.6897333
40.
Lall
,
P.
,
Panchagade
,
D.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Johnson
,
W.
, and
Suhling
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Models for Reliability Prediction of Fine-Pitch BGAs and CSPs in Shock and Drop-Impact
,”
54th ECTC
,
Las Vegas, NV
, June 1–4, pp.
1296
1303
.10.1109/TCAPT.2006.880520
41.
Lall
,
P.
,
Panchagade
,
D. R.
,
Choudhary
,
P.
,
Gupte
,
S.
, and
Suhling
,
J. C.
,
2008
, “
Failure-Envelope Approach to Modeling Shock and Vibration Survivability of Electronic and MEMS Packaging
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Technol.
,
31
(
1
), pp.
104
113
.10.1109/TCAPT.2008.916804
42.
Lall
,
P.
,
Gupte
,
S.
,
Choudhary
,
P.
, and
Suhling
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Solder-Joint Reliability in Electronics Under Shock and Vibration Using Explicit Finite-Element Sub-Modeling
,”
56th ECTC
,
San Diego, CA
, May 30–June 2, pp.
428
435
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645682
43.
Lall
,
P.
,
Panchagade
,
D.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Johnson
,
W.
, and
Suhling
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Smeared-Property Models for Shock-Impact Reliability of Area-Array Packages
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
129
(
4
), pp.
373
381
.10.1115/1.2804085
44.
Lall
,
P.
,
Gupte
,
S.
,
Choudhary
,
P.
, and
Suhling
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Solder Joint Reliability in Electronics Under Shock and Vibration Using Explicit Finite-Element Submodeling
,”
IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
74
83
.10.1109/TEPM.2006.890642
45.
Lall
,
P.
,
Panchagade
,
D.
,
Iyengar
,
D.
,
Shantaram
,
S.
,
Suhling
,
J.
, and
Schrier
,
H.
,
2007
, “
High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Transient-Shock Reliability of Electronics
,”
Proceedings 57th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE
,
Reno, NV
, May 29–June 1, pp.
924
939
.10.1109/ECTC.2007.373908
46.
Tee
,
T. Y.
,
Luan
,
J. E.
,
Pek
,
E.
,
Lim
,
C. T.
, and
Zhong
,
Z.
,
2004
, “
Advanced Experimental and Simulation Techniques for Analysis of Dynamic Responses During Drop Impact
,”
Proceedings 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37546)
,
IEEE
, Vol.
1
,
Las Vegas, NV
, June 1–4, pp.
1088
1094
.10.1109/ECTC.2004.1319475
47.
Syed
,
A.
,
Kim
,
S. M.
,
Lin
,
W.
,
Kim
,
J. Y.
,
Sohn
,
E. S.
, and
Shin
,
J. H.
,
2007
, “
A Methodology for Drop Performance Modeling and Application for Design Optimization of Chip-Scale Packages
,”
IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
42
48
.10.1109/TEPM.2006.890644
48.
Wu
,
J.
,
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2019
, “
Investigation of Aging Induced Microstructural Changes in Doped SAC+ X Solders
,”
18th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
,
IEEE
,
Las Vegas, NV
, May 28–31, pp.
405
415
.10.1109/ITHERM.2019.8756501
You do not currently have access to this content.