The improved efficiency of mineral oil may offer simplicity in facility design compared to traditional air cooling and provide a means for cost savings. Despite its improved cooling efficiency and cost savings, a mineral oil immersion cooling technique is still not widely implemented and original equipment manufacturers are reluctant to jeopardize sales of existing air-based cooling system equipment. Only compelling physics regarding thermal performance of direct immersion cooling is not enough for data center operators. Many uncertainties and concerns persist regarding the effects of mineral oil immersion cooling on the reliability of information technology (IT) equipment both at the component and chassis level. This paper is a first attempt at addressing this challenge by reviewing the changes in physical and chemical properties of IT equipment materials like polyvinyl chloride (PVC), printed circuit board (PCB), and capacitors and characterizes the interconnect reliability of materials. The changes in properties of a mineral oil like kinematic viscosity and dielectric strength are also cited as important factors and discussed briefly. The changes in mechanical properties like elasticity, hardness, swelling, and creep are being shown in the paper for thermoplastic materials. The chemical reaction between material and mineral oil as a function of time and temperature is also conferred. The literature gathered on the subject and quantifiable data gathered by the authors provide the primary basis for this research document.

References

References
1.
Green500.org, 2014, “
The Green500List-June2014
,” Green500.org, Sinsheim, Germany, accessed July 11,
2014
, https://www.top500.org/green500/lists/2014/06/
2.
The New York Times, 2012, “
Cooling a Computer Server With Mineral Oil
,” The New York Times, New York, accessed Sept. 6,
2012
, https://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/cooling-a-computer-server-with-mineral-oil/
3.
Prucnal
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Doing More With Less: Cooling Computers With Oil Pays Off
,”
Next Wave
,
20
(
2
), pp.
20
29
.https://www.grcooling.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/grc_analyst_report_the_nsa_does_more_with_less_with_immersion_cooling.pdf
4.
Shah
,
J. M.
,
Awe
,
O.
,
Agarwal
,
P.
,
Iziren
,
A.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
,
Singh
,
P.
,
Kannan
,
N.
, and
Kaler
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Qualitative Study of Cumulative Corrosion Damage of IT Equipment in a Data Center Utilizing Air-Side Economizer
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2016-66199
.
5.
Shah
,
J. M.
,
Awe
,
O.
,
Gebrehiwot
,
B.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
,
Singh
,
P.
,
Kannan
,
N.
, and
Kaler
,
M.
,
2017
, “
Qualitative Study of Cumulative Corrosion Damage of Information Technology Equipment in a Data Center Utilizing Air-Side Economizer Operating in Recommended and Expanded ASHRAE Envelope
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
139
(
2
), p.
020903
.
6.
Green Revolution Cooling,
2012
, “
Liquid Submersion Cooling Configuration
,” Green Revolution Cooling, Austin, TX, accessed Sept. 2, 2012, http://www.grcooling.com/liquid-submersion-cooling-configuration/
7.
Tulkoff
,
C.
, and
Boyd
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Improved Efficiency & Reliability for Data Center Servers Using Immersion Oil Cooling
,” IPC Electronic System Technologies Conference and Exhibition (
IPC ESTC
), Las Vegas, NV, May 20–23.https://www.dfrsolutions.com/hubfs/Resources/services/Improved-Efficiency-Reliability-Data-Center-Servers-Using-Immersion-Oil-Cooling.pdf?t=1513022462214https://www.dfrsolutions.com/hubfs/Resources/services/Improved-Efficiency-Reliability-Data-Center-Servers-Using-Immersion-Oil-Cooling.pdf?t=1513022462214
8.
Bergles
,
A. E.
, and
Bar-Cohen
,
A.
,
1994
,
Immersion Cooling of Digital Computers, Cooling of Electronic Systems
,
S.
Kakac
,
H.
Yuncu
, and
H.
Hijikata
,
K.
, eds.,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
,
Boston, MA
, pp.
539
621
.
9.
Shah
,
J. M.
, and
Agonafer
,
D.
, 2015, “
Issue on Operational Efficiency for Oil Immersion Cooled Data Centers
,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition.
10.
Shah
,
J. M.
,
Rizvi
,
S. H. I.
,
Kota
,
I. S.
,
Nagilla
,
S. R.
,
Thakkar
,
D.
, and
Agonafer
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Design Considerations Relating to Non-Thermal Aspects of Oil Immersion Cooling
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2016-67320
.
11.
Shah
,
J. M.
,
Eiland
,
R.
,
Rizvi
,
S. H. I.
, and
Agonafer
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Critical Non-Thermal Considerations for Oil Cooled Data Centers
,”
IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop and Tabletop Exhibit on Thermal Management
, Los Gatos, CA, Sept. 22–24.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315114335_Critical_Non-Thermal_Factors_for_Oil_Immersion_Cooled_Data_Centers
12.
Eiland
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Thermo-Mechanical Design Considerations at the Server and Rack Level to Achieve Maximum Data Center Energy Efficiency
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX.https://rc.library.uta.edu/uta-ir/bitstream/handle/10106/26727/Eiland_uta_2502D_13187.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
13.
Shah
,
J. M.
,
2016
, “
Reliability Challenges in Airside Economization and Oil Immersion Cooling
,”
Master's thesis
, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315726572_Reliability_challenges_in_airside_economization_and_oil_immersion_cooling
14.
Shah
,
J.
,
Eiland
,
R.
,
Siddharth
,
A.
, and
Agonafer
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Mineral Oil Immersion Cooling on IT Equipment Reliability and Reliability Enhancements to Data Center Operations
,” 15th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
316
325
.
15.
Cheng
,
H.-C.
,
Chiang
,
K.-N.
, and
Chen
,
C.-K.
,
1998
, “
Parametric Analysis of Thermally Enhanced BGA Reliability Using Finite Volume Weighted Averaging Technique
,” ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Evolving Packaging Materials and Structures Symposium, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 15–20, pp.
13
20
.
16.
Rajmane
,
P.
,
Khan
,
H. A.
,
Doiphode
,
A.
,
Rahangdale
,
U.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
,
Lohia
,
A.
,
Kummerl
,
S.
, and
Nguyen
,
L.
,
2017
, “
Failure Mechanisms of Boards in a Thin Wafer Level Chip Scale Package
,”
16th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems
(
ITherm
), Orlando, FL, May 30–June 2, pp.
1099
1105
.
17.
Rahimidehgolan
,
F.
,
Majzoobi
,
G.
,
Alinejad
,
F.
, and
Sola
,
J. F.
,
2017
, “
Determination of the Constants of GTN Damage Model Using Experiment, Polynomial Regression and Kriging Methods
,”
Appl. Sci.
,
7
(
11
), p.
1179
.
18.
Singh
,
P.
,
Klein
,
L.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
,
Shah
,
J. M.
, and
Pujara
,
K. D.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Relative Humidity, Temperature and Gaseous and Particulate Contaminations on Information Technology Equipment Reliability
,”
ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48176.
19.
Kulkarni
,
C. S.
,
Celaya
,
J. R.
,
Goebel
,
K.
, and
Biswas
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Physics Based Electrolytic Capacitor Degradation Models for Prognostic Studies Under Thermal Overstress
,”
First European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society
, Dresden, Germany, July 3, pp.
156
164
.
20.
ecswire.com,
2015
, “
Insulation & Jackets—Characteristics
,” ECS Electrical Cable Supply Ltd., Mississauga, ON, Canada, accessed Mar. 9, 2019, http://fr.ecswire.com/tools/insulation_jackets/characteristics/
21.
Guide to Fiber Optics & Premises Cabling,
2015
, “
Fiber to the Antenna for Wireless
,” The Fiber Optic Association, Inc., Santa Monica, CA, accessed Mar. 9, 2019, http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/appln/datacenters.html
22.
Eiland
,
R.
,
Fernandes
,
J.
,
Vallejo
,
M.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
, and
Mulay
,
V.
,
2014
, “
Flow Rate and Inlet Temperature Considerations for Direct Immersion of a Single Server in Mineral Oil
,”
14th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems
(
ITherm
), Orlando, FL, May 27–30, pp.
706
714
.
23.
Eiland
,
R.
,
Edward Fernandes
,
J.
,
Vallejo
,
M.
,
Siddarth
,
A.
,
Agonafer
,
D.
, and
Mulay
,
V.
,
2017
, “
Thermal Performance and Efficiency of a Mineral Oil Immersed Server Over Varied Environmental Operating Conditions
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
139
(
4
), p.
041005
.
24.
Dehkordi
,
B. G.
,
Fallah
,
S.
, and
Niazmand
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Investigation of Harmonic Instability of Laminar Fluid Flow Past 2D Rectangular Cross Sections With 0.5–4 Aspect Ratios
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C
,
228
(
5
), pp.
828
839
.
25.
Yuliastuti
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Analysis of Dielectric Properties Comparison Between Mineral Oil and Synthetic Ester Oil
,”
Master thesis
, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A868501da-8cae-473c-9753-b2f72de56eff
26.
Clark
,
F. M.
,
1935
, “
Dielectric Strength of Mineral Oils
,”
Electr. Eng.
,
54
(
1
), pp.
50
55
.
You do not currently have access to this content.