Power electronic components' reliability depends, to a great extent, on the quality of die-attach technology. The voids appearance in the die-attach regions is almost unavoidable during the manufacturing process. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that image processing tools enable fast and accurate void segmentation, while reducing manual interaction for X-ray monitoring of imperfect power transistor die soldering. The most common void parameters such as void area, void distribution, and shape roundness were extracted and used for statistical analysis.

References

References
1.
Otiaba
,
K. C.
,
Okereke
,
M.
, and
Bhatti
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Numerical Assessment of the Effect of Void Morphology on Thermo-Mechanical Performance of Solder Thermal Interface Material
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
64
(
1–2
), pp.
51
63
.
2.
Xiaofei
,
L.
,
Libing
,
Z.
,
Xiangdong
,
K.
,
Pengyun
,
J.
, and
Li
,
H.
,
2011
, “
The Research of Relationship Between the Void of DBC and the Temperature Distribution
,”
International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials (APM)
, Xiamen, China, Oct. 25–28, pp.
168
171
.
3.
Tokuda
,
H.
,
Tanaka
,
Y.
,
Nakagawa
,
H.
,
Aoyagi
,
M.
,
Fukuda
,
K.
,
Ohashi
,
H.
,
Tsuno
,
T.
,
Hoshino
,
T.
,
Namikawa
,
Y.
, and
Hayashi
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Investigation of a Sic Module With a High Operating Temperature for Power Applications
,”
Ninth Electronics Packaging Technology Conference
(EPTC), Singapore, Dec. 10–12, pp.
931
936
.
4.
Nuanprasert
,
S.
,
Baba
,
S.
, and
Suzuki
,
T.
,
2015
, “
A Simple Automated Void Defect Detection for Poor Contrast X-Ray Images of BGA
,”
Third International Conference on Industrial Application Engineering
, Kitakyushu, Japan, Mar. 28–31, pp.
300
305
.
5.
Fu
,
S.
,
Mei
,
Y.
,
Li
,
X.
, and
Lu
,
G. Q.
,
2014
, “
Bonding 1200 v, 150 a IGBT Chips (13.5 mm 13.5 mm) With DBC Substrate by Pressureless Sintering Nanosilver Paste for Power Electronic Packaging
,”
15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT)
, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12–15, pp.
90
96
.
6.
Liu
,
C.
,
Lu
,
D.
,
Lang
,
X.
,
Choi
,
A.
, and
Lee
,
P. W.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Surface Treatments on the Performance of High Thermal Conductive Die Attach Adhesives (DAAs)
,”
14th International Conference on Electronic Materials and Packaging
(EMAP), Lantau Island, Hong Kong, Dec. 13–16, pp.
1
5
.
7.
Le
,
V. N.
,
Benabou
,
L.
,
Etgens
,
V.
, and
Tao
,
Q. B.
,
2016
, “
Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Process-Induced Voids on the Fatigue Lifetime of a Lead-Free Solder Joint Unde, Thermal Cycling
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
65
, pp.
243
254
.
8.
Syed-Khaja
,
A.
, and
Franke
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Investigations on Advanced Soldering Mechanisms for Transient Liquid Phase Soldering (TLPS) in Power Electronics
,”
Fifth Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC)
, Helsinki, Finland, Sept. 16–18, pp.
1
7
.
9.
Fleischer
,
A. S.
,
Chang
,
L.-H.
, and
Johnson
,
B. C.
,
2006
, “
The Effect of Die Attach Voiding on the Thermal Resistance of Chip Level Packages
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
46
(
5–6
), pp.
794
804
.
10.
Otiaba
,
K. C.
,
Bhatti
,
R.
,
Ekere
,
N.
,
Mallik
,
S.
,
Alam
,
M.
,
Amalu
,
E.
, and
Ekpu
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Study on Thermal Impacts of Different Void Patterns on Performance of Chip-Scale Packaged Power Device
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
52
(
7
), pp.
1409
1419
.
11.
Military Standard, 1987, “
Test Method Standard Microcircuits
,” U.S. Department of Defense, Washington, DC, Standard No. MIL-STD-883E, Method 2030.
12.
Morelle
,
J. M.
,
Tan
,
K. L.
,
Vivet
,
L.
,
Leon
,
R.
, and
Lavrentieff
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Alternative Lead Free Die Attach for Power Module Packaging
,”
Seventh International Conference on Integrated Power Electronics Systems (CIPS)
, Nuremberg, Germany, Mar. 6–8, pp.
1
7
.
13.
IPC, 2004, “
Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies
,” IPC, Bannockburn, IL, Standard No. IPC-A-610D.
14.
International Rectifier
,
2006
, “
DirectFET® Technology Inspection Application Note AN-1080, Version 11
,” International Rectifier.
15.
Otiaba
,
K. C.
,
Bhatti
,
R. S.
,
Ekere
,
N. N.
,
Mallik
,
S.
,
Amalu
,
E. H.
, and
Ekpu
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Thermal Effects of Die-Attach Voids Location and Style on Performance of Chip Level Package
,” Third IEEE International Conference on Adaptive Science and Technology (ICAST), Abuja, Nigeria, Nov. 24–26, pp. 231–236.
16.
Syed-Khaja
,
A.
,
Klemm
,
A.
,
Zerna
,
T.
, and
Franke
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Characterization and Optimization of Sn-Cu TLPS Interconnects for High Temperature Power Electronics Through In-Situ-X-Ray Investigations
,” IEEE 66th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
1228
1234
.
17.
Podhraski
,
M.
,
Podrzaj
,
J.
, and
Trontelj
,
J.
,
2013
, “
The Impact of Solder Voids on Thermal Performance of a Power Module: A Numerical Evaluation
,”
49th International Conference on Microelectronics, Devices and Materials and the Workshop on Digital Electronic Systems
, Kranjska Gora, Sept. 25–27, pp. 225–228.
18.
Ciampolini
,
L.
,
Ciappa
,
M.
,
Malberti
,
P.
,
Regli
,
P.
, and
Fichtner
,
W.
,
1999
, “
Modelling Thermal Effects of Large Contiguous Voids in Solder Joints
,”
Microelectron. J.
,
30
(
11
), pp.
1115
1123
.
19.
Li
,
H.
,
Wang
,
C.
,
Yang
,
M.
,
Wang
,
N.
,
An
,
R.
, and
Xu
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
The Effect of Voids on Thermal Conductivity of Solder Joints
,”
13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology High Density Packaging
(ICEPT-HDP), Guilin, China, Aug. 13–16, pp.
1061
1064
.
20.
Katsis
,
D. C.
, and
van Wyk
,
J. D.
,
2003
, “
Void-Induced Thermal Impedance in Power Semiconductor Modules: Some Transient Temperature Effects
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
,
39
(
5
), pp.
1239
1246
.
21.
Nguyen
,
J.
,
Geiger
,
D.
, and
Shangguan
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Assembly Challenges of Bottom Terminated Components
,” APEX Technical Conference, , San Jose, CA, Jan. 22–24, pp. 1–8.
22.
Yu
,
Y.
,
Yao
,
S. A.
,
Wang
,
S.
,
Chen
,
W.
, and
Jiang
,
Y. W.
,
2008
, “
Effects of Dispensed Solder Paste Amount on Solder Void Performance in a PQFN Package
,”
11th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems
, (ITHERM), Orlando, FL, May 28–31, pp.
896
900
.
23.
Chiriac
,
V. A.
, and
Yu
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Impacts of Solder Voids on PQFN Packages' Thermal and Mechanical Performances
,”
12th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems
, (
ITherm
), Las Vegas, NV, June 2–5, pp.
1
7
.
24.
Lu
,
D.
,
Sun
,
Y.
, and
Wong
,
C. P.
,
2001
,
Die Attach Materials
,
Wiley
, Hoboken, NJ.
25.
Hamm
,
R.
, and
Peterson
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt
,”
Int. Symp. Microelectron.
,
2015
(
1
), p.
000848
.
26.
Neubauer
,
C.
,
1997
, “
Intelligent X-Ray Inspection for Quality Control of Solder Joints
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part C
,
20
(
2
), pp.
111
120
.
27.
Said
,
A. F.
,
Bennett
,
B. L.
,
Karam
,
L. J.
, and
Pettinato
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Robust Automatic Void Detection in Solder Balls
,”
IEEE
International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing
(ICASSP), Las Vegas, NV, June 2–5, pp.
1650
1653
.
28.
Kovac
,
O.
,
Girasek
,
T.
, and
Pietrikova
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Image Processing of Die Attach's X-Ray Images for Automatic Voids Detection and Evaluation
,”
39th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology
(
ISSE
), Pilsen, Czech Republic, May 18–22, pp.
199
203
.
29.
Liao
,
G.
,
Chen
,
P.
,
Du
,
L.
,
Su
,
L.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Tang
,
Z.
, and
Shi
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Using SOM Neural Network for X-Ray Inspection of Missing-Bump Defects in Three-Dimensional Integration
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
55
(
12
), pp.
2826
2832
.
30.
Soille
,
P.
,
2004
,
Erosion and Dilation
,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
63
103
.
31.
Benabou
,
L.
,
Le
,
V. N.
,
Sun
,
Z.
,
Pougnet
,
P.
, and
Etgens
,
V.
, 2014. “
Effects of Voids on Thermal-Mechanical Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
MATEC Web Conf.
,
12
, p. 04026.
32.
Ji-Quan
,
M.
,
Fan-Hui
,
K.
,
Pei-Jun
,
M.
, and
Xiao-Hong
,
S.
, 2005, “
Detection of Defects at BGA Solder Joints by Using X-ray Imaging
,”
International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics
, Guangzhou, China, Aug. 8–21, pp. 5139–5143.
33.
Malgina
,
O.
,
Praznikar
,
A.
, and
Tasic
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Inhomogeneity Correction and Fat-Tissue Extraction in MR Images of FacioScapuloHumeral Muscular Dystrophy
,”
Pattern Recognit. Lett.
,
34
(
12
), pp.
1364
1371
.
34.
Wu
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
H.
, and
Du
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Robust Affine Iterative Closest Point Algorithm Based on Correntropy for 2D Point Set Registration
,”
International Joint Conference on Neural Networks
(
IJCNN
), Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 24–29, pp.
1415
1419
.
35.
Zunic
,
J.
, and
Hirota
,
K.
,
2008
, “
Measuring Shape Circularity
,”
Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications
,
Springer
,
Berlin
, pp.
94
101
.
36.
Gonzalez
,
R. C.
, and
Woods
,
R. E.
, 2009,
Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB
, 2nd ed., Gatesmark Publishing, New York.
37.
Bezdek
,
J.
,
Ehrlich
,
R.
, and
Full
,
W.
,
1984
, “
FCM: The Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Algorithm
,”
Comput. Geosci.
,
10
(
2–3
), pp.
191
203
.
38.
John
,
C.
,
1986
, “
A Computational Approach to Edge Detection
,”
IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
,
8
(
6
), pp.
679
698
.
39.
Soille
,
P.
,
2003
,
Morphological Image Analysis: Principles and Applications
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
40.
Otsu
,
N.
,
1979
, “
A Threshold Selection Method From Gray-Level Histograms
,”
IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.
,
9
(
1
), pp.
62
66
.
41.
Rafati
,
M.
,
Arabfard
,
M.
, and
Rafati-Rahimzadeh
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Comparison of Different Edge Detections and Noise Reduction on Ultrasound Images of Carotid and Brachial Arteries Using a Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion Filter
,”
Iranian Red Crescent Med. J.
,
16
(
9
), p.
e14658
.
42.
Papoulis
,
A.
, and
Pillai
,
S. U.
,
2002
,
Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes
,
4th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
Boston, MA
.
43.
Sigworth
,
F. J.
, and
Sine
,
S. M.
,
1987
, “
Data Transformations for Improved Display and Fitting of Single-Channel Dwell Time Histograms
,”
Biophys. J.
,
52
(
6
), pp.
1047
1054
.
44.
Wei
,
Y.
,
Luhui
,
X.
,
Xiaopan
,
C.
,
Fengbin
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Chi-Squared Distance Metric Learning for Histogram Data
,”
Math. Probl. Eng.
,
2015
, pp.
1
12
.
45.
Brabant
,
L.
,
Vlassenbroeck
,
J.
,
De Witte
,
Y.
,
Cnudde
,
V.
,
Boone
,
M. N.
,
Dewanckele
,
J.
, and
Van Hoorebeke
,
L.
,
2011
, “
Three-Dimensional Analysis of High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography Data With Morpho
,”
Microsc. Microanal.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
252
263
.
46.
Roth
,
H.
,
He
,
Z.
, and
Mayer
,
T.
,
2009
, “
Inspection of Through Silicon Vias (TSV) and Other Interconnections in IC Packages by Computed Tomography
,”
11th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference
(
EPTC
), Singapore, Dec. 9–11, pp.
438
441
.
47.
Benzerga
,
A. A.
, and
Leblond
,
J.-B.
,
2010
, “
Ductile Fracture by Void Growth to Coalescence
,”
Adv. Appl. Mech.
,
44
, pp.
169
305
.
You do not currently have access to this content.