Gravity-driven two-phase liquid cooling systems using flow boiling within microscale evaporators are becoming a game-changing solution for electronics cooling. The optimization of the system's filling ratio (FR) can however become a challenging problem for a system operating over a wide range of cooling capacities and temperature ranges. The benefits of a liquid accumulator (LA) to overcome this difficulty are evaluated in the present paper. An experimental thermosyphon cooling system was built to cool multiple electronic components up to a power dissipation of 1800 W. A double-ended cylinder with a volume of 150 cm3 is evaluated as the LA for two different system volumes (associated with two different condensers). Results demonstrated that the LA provided robust thermal performance as a function of FR for the entire range of heat loads tested. In addition, the present LA was more effective for a small volume system, 599 cm3, than for a large volume system, 1169 cm3, in which the relative size of the LA increased from 12.8% to 25% of the total system's volume.

References

References
1.
Koomey
,
J. G.
,
2007
, “
Estimating Regional Power Consumption by Servers in the U.S. and the World
,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Stanford, CA,
Technical Report
.
2.
Agostini, B., and Habert, M., 2013, “
Compact Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger for Power Electronics
,”
J. Energy Power Eng.
,
7
(5), pp. 972–978.
3.
Tiwari
,
M. K.
,
Zimmermann
,
S.
,
Sharma
,
C. S.
,
Alfieri
,
F.
,
Renfer
,
A.
,
Brunschwiler
,
T.
,
Meijer
,
G. I.
,
Michel
,
B.
, and
Poulikakos
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Waste Heat Recovery in Supercomputers and 3D Integrated Liquid Cooled Electronics
,” 13th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1, pp. 545–551.
4.
Brunschwiler
,
T.
,
Meijer
,
G. I.
,
Paredes
,
S.
,
Escher
,
W.
, and
Michel
,
B.
,
2010
, “
Direct Waste Heat Utilization From Liquid-Cooled Supercomputers
,”
ASME
Paper No. IHTC14-23352.
5.
Ganapati
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Water-Cooled Supercomputer Doubles as Dorm Space Heater
,” IBM, Zürich, Switzerland, accessed Jan. 29, 2018, https://www.wired.com/2009/06/ibm-supercomputer/
6.
Meijer
,
G. I.
,
Brunschwiler
,
T.
, and
Michel
,
B.
,
2009
, “
Using Waste Heat From Datacenters to Minimize Carbon Dioxide Emissions
,”
ERCIM News
,
79
, pp.
23
24
.
7.
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
,
Olivier
,
J. A.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2011
, “
Reasons to Use Two-Phase Refrigerant Cooling
,”
Electron. Cooling
,
17
, pp.
22
27
.
8.
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
,
Olivier
,
J. A.
,
Lamaison
,
N.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2011
, “
Advances in Electronics Cooling
,”
Int. J. Heat Transfer Eng.
,
34
, pp.
434
446
.
9.
Bielinski
,
H.
, and
Mikielewicz
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Natural Circulation in Single and Two Phase Thermosyphon Loop With Conventional Tubes and Minichannels
,” Heat Transfer - Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Methods and Information Technology, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp.
1
496
.
10.
Na
,
M.-K.
,
Jeon
,
J.-S.
,
Kwak
,
H.-Y.
, and
Nam
,
S.-S.
,
2001
, “
Experimental Study on Closed-Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon Device for Cooling MCMS
,”
Heat Transfer Eng.
,
22
(
2
), pp.
29
39
.
11.
Noie
,
S. H.
,
2005
, “
Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
495
506
.
12.
Chang
,
C.-C.
,
Kuo
,
S.-C.
,
Ke
,
M.-T.
, and
Chen
,
S.-L.
,
2010
, “
Two-Phase Closed-Loop Thermosyphon for Electronic Cooling
,”
Exp. Heat Transfer
,
23
(
2
), pp.
144
156
.
13.
Kannan
,
M.
, and
Natarajan
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Thermal Performance of a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon for Waste Heat Recovery System
,”
J. Appl. Sci.
,
10
(
5
), pp.
413
418
.
14.
Franco
,
A.
, and
Filippeschi
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Analysis of Closed-Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon (CLTPT) for Energy Systems
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
51
, pp.
302
311
.
15.
Salamon
,
T.
,
Amalfi
,
R. L.
,
Lamaison
,
N.
,
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
, 2017, “
Two-Phase Liquid Cooled System for Electronics, Part 1: Pump-Driven Loop
,” 16th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), Orlando, FL, May 30–June 2, pp. 667–677.
16.
Amalfi
,
R. L.
,
Salamon
,
T.
,
Lamaison
,
N.
,
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2017
, “
Two-Phase Liquid Cooling System for Electronics—Part 2: Air-Cooled Condenser
,” 16th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), Orlando, FL, May 30–June 2, pp. 678–686.
17.
Amalfi
,
R. L.
,
Salamon
,
T.
,
Lamaison
,
N.
,
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2017
, “
Two-Phase Liquid Cooling System for Electronics—Part 3: Ultracompact Liquid-Cooled Condenser
,” 16th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), Orlando, FL, May 30–June 2, pp. 687–695.
18.
Lamaison
,
N.
,
Ong
,
C. L.
,
Marcinichen
,
J. B.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2017
, “
Two-Phase Mini-Thermosyphon Electronics Cooling: Dynamic Modeling, Experimental Validation and Application to 2U Servers
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
110
, pp.
481
494
.
19.
Samba
,
A.
,
Louahlia-Gualous
,
H.
,
Le Masson
,
S.
, and
Norterhauser
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Two-Phase Thermosyphon Loop for Cooling Outdoor Telecommunication Equipments
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
50
(
1
), pp.
1351
1360
.
You do not currently have access to this content.