Low-temperature microjoining, such as wire (or ribbon) bonding, tape automated bonding (TAB), and flip chip bonding (FCB), is necessary for electronics packaging. Each type of microjoining takes on various aspects but has common bonding mechanisms regarding friction slip, plastic deformation, and friction heating. In the present paper, solid-state microjoining mechanisms in Au wire (ball) bonding, FCB, Al wire bonding (WB), and Al ribbon bonding are discussed to systematically understand the common bonding mechanisms. Ultrasonic vibration enhances friction slip and plastic deformation, making it possible to rapidly obtain dry interconnects. Metallic adhesion at the central area of the bonding interface is mainly produced by the friction slip. On the other hand, the folding of the lateral side surfaces of the Au bump, Au ball, and Al wire is very important for increasing the bonded area. The central and peripheral adhesions are achieved by a slip-and-fold mechanism. The solid-state microjoining mechanisms of WB and FCB are discussed based on experimental results.

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