Specific function or application in electronics often requires assembly of heterogeneous materials in a single system. Schemes to achieve such goals are of critical importance for applications ranging from the study in basic cell biology to multifunctional electronics for diagnostics/therapeutics. In this review article, we will first briefly introduce a few assembly techniques, such as microrobotic assembly, guided self-assembly, additive manufacturing, and transfer printing. Among various heterogeneous assembly techniques, transfer printing represents a simple yet versatile tool to integrate vastly different materials or structures in a single system. By utilizing such technique, traditionally challenging tasks have been enabled and they include novel experimental platforms for study of two-dimensional (2D) materials and cells, bio-integrated electronics such as stretchable and biodegradable devices, and three-dimensional (3D) assembly with advanced materials such as semiconductors.

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