The behavior of lead-free solder alloys under realistic service conditions is still not well understood. Life prediction of solder joints relies on conducting accelerated tests and extrapolating results to service conditions. This can be very misleading without proper constitutive relations and without understanding the effects of cycling parameter variations common under realistic service conditions. It has been shown that the fatigue life depends on the inelastic work accumulation, independently of cycling-induced material property variations, which explains the breakdown of damage accumulation rules and allows the development of a modified Miner's rule. This paper discusses the interacting effects of strain rate and amplitude variations on solder joint fatigue life. Individual SnAgCu solder joints with two different Ag contents (SAC305 and SAC105) were tested in low cycling shear fatigue under single and varying amplitudes with different strain rates. Such a shear fatigue experiment allows the measurement of work accumulation and the evolution of solder deformation properties during cycling. The results showed that cycling with a lower strain rate at fixed amplitude causes more damage per cycle. Alternating between mild amplitude at a high strain rate and harsh amplitude at a low strain rate leads to ongoing increases in the rate of damage at the mild amplitude and thus relatively rapid failure. In comparing SAC305 with SAC105, the effect of strain rate on both alloys is almost the same, and SAC305 is still more fatigue resistant than SAC105 in varying amplitude cycling with any strain rate.

References

References
1.
Godbole
,
G.
,
Roggeman
,
B.
,
Borgesen
,
P.
, and
Srihari
,
K.
,
2009
, “
On the Nature of Pad Cratering
,”
IEEE 59th Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), San Diego, CA, May 26–29, pp.
100
108
.
2.
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Recrystallization Behavior of Lead Free and Lead Containing Solder in Cycling
,”
IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 31–June 3, pp.
1775
1781
.
3.
Korhonen
,
K.
,
Lehman
,
L.
,
Korhonen
,
M.
, and
Henderson
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Isothermal Fatigue Behavior of the Near-Eutectic Sn–Ag–Cu Alloy Between −25 and 125 °C
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
36
(
2
), pp.
173
178
.
4.
Cuddalorepatta
,
G.
,
Dasgupta
,
A.
, and
Holdermann
,
K.
,
2008
, “
Dynamic Recrystallization of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Pb-Free Solder Alloy
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2008-67671.
5.
Batieha
,
F.
,
Feyissa
,
F.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Shirazi
,
S.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Ogutu
,
P.
,
Dimitrov
,
N.
,
Fey
,
E.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Intermetallics Issues and Challenges in 2.5/3D Assembly Microjoints
,”
SMTA 20th Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium
, Kauai, HI, Feb. 2–5.
6.
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Xing
,
Y.
,
Woods
,
J.
,
Wolcott
,
J.
,
Tumne
,
P.
,
Borgesen
,
P.
, and
Cotts
,
E.
,
2008
, “
The Effect of Sn Grain Number and Orientation on the Shear Fatigue Life of SnAgCu Solder Joints
,”
58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27–30, pp.
459
465
.
7.
Schmitz
,
D.
,
Shirazi
,
S.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Towards a Quantitative Mechanistic Understanding of the Thermal Cycling of SnAgCu Solder Joints
,”
Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), Orlando, FL, May 27–30, pp.
371
378
.
8.
Yin
,
L.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Recrystallization and Precipitate Coarsening in Pb-Free Solder Joints During Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
241
252
.
9.
Korhonen
,
T.
,
Lehman
,
L.
,
Korhonen
,
M.
, and
Henderson
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Isothermal Fatigue Behaviour of the Near-Eutectic Sn–Ag–Cu Alloy Between 25 and 125 °C
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
36
(
2
), pp.
173
178
.
10.
Zhao
,
J.
,
Mutoh
,
Y.
,
Miyashita
,
Y.
, and
Mannan
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Fatigue Crack-Growth Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi Lead-Free Solders
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
31
(
8
), pp.
879
886
.
11.
Mayyas
,
A.
,
Yin
,
L.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Recrystallization of Lead Free Solder Joints: Confounding the Interpretation of Accelerated Thermal Cycling Results?
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2009-12749.
12.
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Correlation Between Solder Joint Fatigue Life and Accumulated Work in Isothermal Cycling
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol.
,
5
(
9
), pp.
1292
1299
.
13.
Warren
,
J.
, and
Wei
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
A Microscopic Stored Energy Approach to Generalize Fatigue Life Stress Ratios
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
32
(
11
), pp.
1853
1861
.
14.
Wertz
,
J.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
Shen
,
H.
,
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
, and
Cross
,
C.
,
2013
, “
A Comparison of Constitutive Equations for the Energy-Based Lifting Method
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
135
(
3
), p.
031008
.
15.
Chang
,
S.
,
Pimbley
,
T.
, and
Conway
,
D.
,
1968
, “
An Analysis of Metal Fatigue Based on Hysteresis Energy
,”
Exp. Mech.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
133
137
.
16.
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Damage Evolution in Lead Free Solder Joints in Isothermal Fatigue
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
137
(
2
), p.
021012
.
17.
Batieha
,
F.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Challenges for the Prediction of Solder Joint Life in Long Term Vibration
,”
65th Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), San Diego, CA, May 26–29, pp.
1553
1559
.
18.
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Obaidat
,
M.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Assessment of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
43
(
12
), pp.
4472
4484
.
19.
Miner
,
M.
,
1945
, “
Cumulative Damage in Fatigue
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
12
, pp.
A159
A164
.
20.
Borgesen
,
P.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Roggeman
,
B.
, and
Meilunas
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Damage Accumulation in Pb-Free Solder Joints for Complex Loading Histories
,”
SMTA Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium
, Kamuela, HI, Jan.18–20.
21.
Yang
,
L.
,
Raghavan
,
V.
,
Roggeman
,
B.
,
Yin
,
L.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2009
, “
On the Complete Breakdown of Miner's Rule for Lead Free BGA Joints
,”
SMTA International
, San Diego, CA, Oct. 4–8, pp.
152
159
.
22.
Borgesen
,
P.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Obaidat
,
M.
,
Raghavan
,
V.
,
Dai
,
X.
,
Meilunas
,
M.
, and
Anselm
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Solder Joint Reliability Under Realistic Service Conditions
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
53
(
9–11
), pp.
1587
1591
.
23.
Obaidat
,
M.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Anselm
,
M.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2013
, “
Effects of Varying Amplitudes on the Fatigue Life of Lead Free Solder Joints
,”
IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), Las Vegas, NV, May 28–31, pp.
1308
1314
.
24.
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Owens
,
J.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Anselm
,
M.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2012
, “
On the Fatigue Life of Microelectronic Interconnects in Cycling With Varying Amplitudes
,”
SMTA International Conference
, Orlando, FL, Oct. 14–18, pp.
22
28
.
25.
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Owens
,
J.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Variable Amplitude Loading on Lead Free Solder Joint Properties and Damage Accumulation
,” 13th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (
ITherm
), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1, pp.
740
744
.
26.
Yang
,
L.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Arfaei
,
B.
,
Roggeman
,
B.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2013
, “
On the Assessment of the Life of SnAgCu Solder Joints in Cycling With Varying Amplitudes
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
430
440
.
27.
Yang
,
L.
,
Yin
,
L.
,
Roggeman
,
B.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Microstructure Evolution on Damage Accumulation in Lead Free Solder Joints
,”
60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference
(
ECTC
), Las Vegas, NV, June 1–4, pp.
1518
1523
.
28.
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
, and
Borgesen
,
B.
,
2015
, “
Statistical Variations of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol.
,
5
(
9
), pp.
1284
1291
.
29.
Hamasha
,
S.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
General Damage Accumulation Rule for Solder Joint Fatigue Life in Real Service Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol.
(submitted).
30.
Matin
,
M.
,
Vellinga
,
W.
, and
Geers
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Microstructure Evolution in a Pb-Free Solder Alloy During Mechanical Fatigue
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
431
(
1–2
), pp.
166
174
.
31.
Quesnel
,
D.
, and
Tsou
,
J.
,
1981
, “
A Theory on the Shape of Saturated Hysteresis Loops
,”
Dislocation Modeling of Physical Systems
,
Pergamon Press
,
Oxford, UK
, pp.
381
387
.
32.
Chao
,
Y.
, and
Varma
,
S.
,
1991
, “
Effect of Strain Rate on the Dislocation Cell Size at Various Stress Levels During Uniaxial Tensile Testing of Electrical Conductor Aluminum
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
131
(
2
), pp.
L1
L3
.
You do not currently have access to this content.