It is essential for electronics reliability to develop effective methodologies to detect hidden solder joint defects. Active infrared thermography is an alternative to X-ray detection methodologies. The limits of active infrared thermography to detect solder ball defects on plastic ball grid arrays (PBGA) components (missing, open, cracked, and head on pillow defects) are investigated here. A FEM was used to simulate the thermal phenomena during the infrared thermography inspection of a PBGA component. The FEM was proven to be temporal and spatial grids size independent. The average temperature difference (ΔT) amid regions with and without defects was used as a detectability indicator. Defects detectability was found to decrease as the number of blocking objects increases. Missing solder balls were barely detected when blocked by the substrate and moulding compound with detectability numbers close to 1 °C. Head on pillow and cracked defects were impossible to detect with a maximum ΔT = 0.6 °C. Open solder balls were not detected below two objects with a maximum ΔT = 0.3 °C. These results clearly suggest that infrared thermography can be effectively used to detect hidden missing and open solder ball defects on PBGA components composed by a substrate and a die.

References

References
1.
Mar
,
N. S. S.
,
Yarlagadda
,
P. K. D. V.
, and
Fookes
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Design and Development of Automatic Visual Inspection System for PCB Manufacturing
,”
Robot. Comput.-Integrated Manuf.
,
27
(
5
), pp.
949
962
.10.1016/j.rcim.2011.03.007
2.
Zhao
,
H.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Sun
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Research on BGA Solder Joint Two-Dimensional Quality Information Extraction
,”
13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging
(
ICEPT-HDP
), Guilin, China, August 13–16, pp.
1284
1286
.10.1109/ICEPT-HDP.2012.6474840
3.
Zhen
,
F.
,
Gonzalez
,
J. C.
,
Sea
,
T.
,
Kurwa
,
M.
, and
Krastev
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Can Nondestructive Techniques Identify BGA Defects?
,”
SMT: Surface Mount Technol.
,
22
(
10
), pp.
25
27
.
4.
Feng
,
J.
,
Basani
,
J.
,
Kurwa
,
M.
,
Bernard
,
D.
, and
Krastev
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Modern 2D X-Ray Tackles BGA Defects
,”
SMT: Surface Mount Technol.
,
22
(
7
), pp.
22
24
.
5.
VPI Optical Inspection Systems
,”
2013
, EasyBraid Co., Minneapolis, MN, http://www.easybraidco.com/optical-inspection-systems-p-480-l-en.html
6.
Ibarra-Castanedo
,
C.
,
Piau
,
J.-M.
,
Guilbert
,
S.
,
Avdelidis
,
N. P.
,
Genest
,
M.
,
Bendada
,
A.
, and
Maldague
,
X. P. V.
,
2009
, “
Comparative Study of Active Thermography Techniques for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Honeycomb Structures
,”
Res. Nondestr. Eval.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
1
31
.10.1080/09349840802366617
7.
Hung
,
Y. Y.
,
Chen
,
Y. S.
,
Ng
,
S. P.
,
Liu
,
L.
,
Huang
,
Y. H.
,
Luk
,
B. L.
,
Ip
,
R. W. L.
,
Wu
,
C. M. L.
, and
Chung
,
P. S.
,
2009
, “
Review and Comparison of Shearography and Active Thermography for Nondestructive Evaluation
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. R: Rep.
,
64
(
5–6
), pp.
73
112
.10.1016/j.mser.2008.11.001
8.
Lu
,
X.
,
Liao
,
G.
,
Zha
,
Z.
,
Xia
,
Q.
, and
Shi
,
T.
,
2011
, “
A Novel Approach for Flip Chip Solder Joint Inspection Based on Pulsed Phase Thermography
,”
NDT & E Int.
,
44
(
6
), pp.
484
489
.10.1016/j.ndteint.2011.05.003
9.
Ishikawa
,
S.
,
Tohmyoh
,
H.
,
Watanabe
,
S.
,
Nishimura
,
T.
, and
Nakano
,
Y.
,
2013
, “
Extending the Fatigue Life of Pb-Free SAC Solder Joints Under Thermal Cycling
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
53
(
5
), pp.
741
747
.10.1016/j.microrel.2013.02.011
10.
Chen
,
H.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Han
,
J.
,
Li
,
M.
, and
Liu
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Microstructure, Orientation and Damage Evolution in SnPb, SnAgCu, and Mixed Solder Interconnects Under Thermomechanical Stress
,”
Microelectron. Eng.
,
96
, pp.
82
91
.10.1016/j.mee.2012.03.005
11.
Seelig
,
K.
,
2008
, “
Head-in-Pillow BGA Defects
,” AIM Solder, Montreal, Canada, http://www.aimsolder.com/sites/default/files/head-in-pillow_bga_defects.pdf
12.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Fiacco
,
P.
, and
Lee
,
N.-C.
,
2013
, “
Testing and Prevention of Head-in-Pillow
,” Datest, Fremont, CA, accessed May 16, 2013, http://www.datest.com/resources-reallyannoyingproblems-headinpillowtestandprevention.php
13.
Koh
,
K. C.
,
Choi
,
H. J.
,
Kim
,
J. S.
, and
Cho
,
H. S.
,
2001
, “
A Statistical Learning-Based Object Recognition Algorithm for Solder Joint Inspection
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
4564
, pp.
260
267
.10.1117/12.444096
14.
Kong
,
F. H.
,
2008
, “
A New Method of Inspection Based on Shape From Shading
,” 1st International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (
CISP '08
), Sanya, China, May 27–30, pp.
291
294
.10.1109/CISP.2008.292
15.
Montanini
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Quantitative Determination of Subsurface Defects in a Reference Specimen Made of Plexiglas by Means of Lock-In and Pulse Phase Infrared Thermography
,”
Infrared Phys. Technol.
,
53
(
5
), pp.
363
371
.10.1016/j.infrared.2010.07.002
16.
Celik
,
I.
,
Ghia
,
U.
,
Roache
,
P.
, and
Christopher
,
2008
, “
Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due to Discretization in CFD Applications
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
130
(
7
), p.
078001
.10.1115/1.2960953
17.
Giron Palomares
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Understanding, Modeling and Predicting Hidden Solder Joint Shape Using Active Thermography
,” Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2012-05-11223
18.
Incropera
,
F. P.
,
2007
,
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
,
John Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
19.
Oberkampf
,
W. L.
, and
Roy
,
C. J.
,
2010
,
Verification and Validation in Scientific Computing
,
Cambridge University
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.