Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) equipment and products have gradually penetrated into modern life due to recent advances in fabrication processes. Accompanied with the fast-growing power consumption and increasing integration, requirement for miniaturization, compactness, and high performance have become more and more remarkable, resulting in problems such as higher heat loads and higher thermal resistance. Thermal management has emerged as one of the critical bottlenecks for further development of diverse, robust, and ultracompact MEMS. Thermodynamics, fluid flow, and heat transfer are important physical processes in advanced MEMS and affiliated parts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer in MEMS is desired for advanced MEMS thermal management.

Extensive efforts have been directed toward advanced cooling schemes for removing high heat fluxes, e.g., direct and indirect liquid cooling, jet impingement, liquid-vapor phase change cooling, etc. MEMS thermal management demands high heat transfer coefficient,...

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