Recent trends in microelectronics converge to flexible, stretchable, rollable, bendable, and wearable components or devices for a variety of applications such as displays, portable devices, energy generation/storage devices, etc. Printed electronics is emerging as one of the technology enablers for such flexible devices.

While the use of metal movable-type printing was first invented in Asia as early as the 13th century, the western-style printing press was not fully adopted until centuries later. Since then, printing technologies have evolved dramatically, including recently developed direct printing methodologies such as ink jet printing. Recent advances in three-dimensional printing technologies offer myriad new possibilities. Three-dimensional fabrication via additive manufacturing is becoming a powerful tool not only for prototyping but also for mass production of commercial devices.

During the last ten years or so, extensive efforts have been invested in developing printed electronics. Although the printing technologies have evolved dramatically,...

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