Copper–silver (Cu–Ag) composite flip-chip interconnect between silicon (Si) chips and Cu substrates is demonstrated. Array of Cu–Ag columns, each 28 μm in height and 40 μm in diameter, is electroplated on 2-in. Si wafers coated with chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) dual layer. The Si wafers are diced into 6 mm × 6 mm chips, each containing 50 × 50 Cu–Ag columns. The Si chip with Cu–Ag columns is bonded to Cu substrates at 260 °C in 80 mTorr vacuum. A bonding force of only 1.8 kg is applied, corresponding to 0.71 g per Cu–Ag column. During bonding, Ag atoms in Cu–Ag columns deform and their surfaces conform to and mate with the surface of Cu substrate. Solid-state bonding incurs when Ag atoms in Cu–Ag columns and Cu atoms in Cu substrates are brought within atomic distance so that they share conduction electrons. The Cu–Ag columns are indeed bonded to the Cu. No molten phase is involved in the bonding. The joint consists of 60% Cu section and 40% Ag section. The ductile Ag is able to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch between Si and Cu. The Cu–Ag joints do not contain any intermetallic compound (IMC). This interconnect technology avoids all reliability issues associated with IMC growth in conventional soldering processes. Compared to tin-based lead-free solder joints, Cu–Ag composite joints have superior electrical and thermal properties.

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