Demand for long-term reliability of electronic packaging has lead to a large number of studies on viscoplastic behavior of solder alloys. Various creep models for solder alloys have been proposed. They range from purely empirical to mechanism based models where dislocation motion and diffusion processes are taken into account. In this study, most commonly used creep models are compared with the test data and implemented in ABAQUS to compare their performance in cycling loading. Finally, a new creep model is proposed that combines best features of many models. It is also shown that, while two creep models may describe the same material stress–strain rate curves equally well, they may yield very different results when utilized for cycling loading. One interesting observation of this study is that the stress exponent, n., also depends on the grain size.

References

References
1.
Basaran
,
C.
,
Ye
,
H.
Hopkins
,
D.
,
Frear
,
D.
, and
Lin
,
J. K.
, 2005, “
Failure Modes of Flip Chip Solder Joints Under High Electrical Current Density
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
127
(
2
), pp.
157
163
.
2.
Gomez
,
J.
, and
Basaran
,
C.
, 2006, “
Damage Mechanics Constitutive Model for Pb/Sn Solder Joints Incorporating Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening and Rate Dependent Effects Using a Return Mapping Integration Algorithm
,”
Mech. Mater.
,
38
(
72
), pp.
585
598
.
3.
Kashyap
,
B. P.
, and
Murty
,
G. S.
, 1981, “
Experimental Constitutive Relations for the High Temperature Deformation of a Pb-Sn Eutectic Alloy
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
50
(
2
), pp.
205
213
.
4.
Hacke
,
P.
,
Sprecher
,
A. F.
, and
Conrad
,
H.
, 1993, “
Computer Simulation of Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Solder Joints Including Microstructure Coarsening
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
115
(
2
), pp.
153
158
.
5.
Anand
,
L.
, 1985, “
Constitutive Equations for Hot Working of Metals
,”
J. Plast.
,
1
(
3
), pp.
213
231
.
6.
Brown
,
S. B.
,
Kim
,
K. H.
, and
Anand
,
L.
, 1989, “
An Internal Variable Constitutive Model for Hot Working of Metals
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
5
(
2
), pp.
95
130
.
7.
Ozmat
,
B.
, 1990, “
A Nonlinear Thermal Stress Analysis of Surface Mount Solder Joints
,”
40th ECTC
, pp.
959
972
.
8.
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Dasgupta
,
A.
, and
Haswell
,
P.
, 2004, “
Partitioned Viscoplastic-Constitutive Properties of the Pb-Free Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu Solder
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
33
(
11
), pp.
1338
1349
.
9.
Towashiporn
,
P.
,
Subbarayan
,
G.
,
McIlvanie
,
B.
,
Hunter
,
B. C.
,
Love
,
D.
, and
Sullivan
,
B.
, 2002, “
Predictive Reliability Models Through Validated Correlation Between Power Cycling and Thermal Cycling Accelerated Life Tests
,”
Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
52
60
.
10.
Kim
,
J. W.
, and
Jung
,
S. B.
, 2004, “
Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of the Shear Speed Effects on the Sn–Ag and Sn–Ag–Cu BGA Solder Joints
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
371
(
1–2
), pp.
267
276
.
11.
Wang
,
T. H.
,
Lai
,
Y. S.
, and
Wu
,
J. D.
, 2004, “
Effect of Underfill Thermomechanical Properties on Thermal Cycling Fatigue Reliability of Flip-Chip Ball Grid Array
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
126
(
4
), pp.
560
564
.
12.
Pan
,
T. Y.
, 1991, “
Thermal Cycling Induced Plastic Deformation in Solder Joints-Part 11: Accumulated Deformation in Through Hole Joints
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon.
,
14
(
4
), pp.
824
832
.
13.
Darveaux
,
R.
, and
Banerji
,
K.
, 1991, “
Fatigue Analysis of Flip Chip Assemblies Using Thermal Stress Simulations and a Coffin-Manson Relation
,”
41th ECTC
, pp.
797
805
.
14.
Shi
,
X. Q.
,
Wang
,
Z. P.
,
Pang
,
H. L. J.
, and
Yang
,
Q. J.
, 2003, “
Creep Behavior and Deformation Mechanism Map of Sn-Pb Eutectic Solder Alloy
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
125
(
1
), pp.
81
88
.
15.
Shi
,
X. Q.
,
Wang
,
Z. P.
,
Zhou
,
W.
,
Pang
,
H. L. J.
, and
Yang
,
Q. J.
, 2002, “
A New Creep Constitutive Model for Eutectic Solder Alloy
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
124
(
2
), pp.
85
90
.
16.
Lau
,
J.
, and
Pao
,
Y. H.
, 1997
, Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, Flip Chip, CSP, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
New York.
You do not currently have access to this content.