A low-cost (with bare chips) and high (optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical) performance optoelectronic system embedded into a PCB (printed circuit board) or an organic laminated substrate is designed and described. This system consists of a rigid PCB (or a substrate) with an embedded optical polymer waveguide, an embedded vertical cavity surface emitted laser (VCSEL), an embedded driver chip, an embedded serializer, an embedded photo-diode detector, an embedded tans-impedance amplifier (TIA), an embedded deserializer, embedded heat slugs, and a heat spreader. The bare VCSEL, driver chip, and serializer chip are 3D stacked and then attached on one end of the embedded optical polymer waveguide in the PCB. Similarly, the bare photo-diode detector, TIA chip, and deserializer chip are 3D stacked and then attached on the other end of the embedded optical polymer waveguide in PCB. The back-side of the driver or serializer and the TIA or deserializer chips is attached to a heat slug with or without a spreader. This novel structural design offers potential solutions for low-cost and high-performance semiconductor circuits with optical devices to realize wide-bandwidth and low-profile optoelectronic packaging for chip-to-chip optical interconnect applications. Optical, thermal management, and mechanical performances are demonstrated by simulations based on the optic theory, heat-transfer theory, and continuum mechanics.

References

References
1.
Lau
,
J. H.
, 1995,
Flip Chip Technology
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
2.
Lau
,
J. H.
, 2000,
Low-Cost Flip Chip Technology
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Lim
,
T. G.
,
Lee
,
B.
,
Shioda
,
T.
,
Kuruveettil
,
H.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
,
Fujita
,
K.
,
Yamada
,
K.
,
Pamidighantam
,
R.
, and
Lau
,
J. H.
, 2009, “
Demonstration of High Frequency Data Link on FR4 PCB Using Optical Waveguides
,”
IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.
,
32
, pp.
509
516
.
4.
Ramana
,
P.
,
Kuruveettil
,
H.
,
Lee
,
B.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
,
Shioda
,
T.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Chanchuidrappan
,
J.
,
Lim
,
T.
,
Teo
,
C.
,
Chai
,
J.
,
Jie
,
Y.
,
Sharmani
,
C.
, and
Lau
,
J. H.
, 2008, “
Bi-Directional Optical communication at 10 Gb/s on FR4 PCB Using Reflow Solderable SMT Transceiver
,”
IEEE/Electronic Components and Technology Conference Proceedings
, May 2008, pp.
244
249
.
5.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lim
,
Y.
,
Lim
,
T.
,
Tang
,
G.
,
Houe
,
K.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Ramana
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Chandrappan
,
J.
,
Chai
,
J.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Tangdiongga
,
G.
, and
Kwong
,
D.
, “
Design and Analysis of 3D Stacked Optoelectronics on Optical Printed Circuit Boards
,”
IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.
, (accepted).
6.
Chai
,
J.
,
Yap
,
G.
,
Lim
,
T.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Khoo
,
Y.
,
Teo
,
C.
,
Lim
,
L.
,
Yee
,
H.
,
Ramana
,
P.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
R.
,
Tang
,
T.
,
Chang
,
H.
,
Chiang
,
S.
,
Cheng
,
D.
, and
Tseng
,
T. J.
, 2008, “
Electrical Interconnect Design Optimization for Fully Embedded Board-level Optical Interconnects
,”
IEEE/Electronic Packaging and Technology Conference Proceedings
, December 2008, pp.
1126
1130
.
7.
Lim
,
L.
,
Teo
,
C.
,
Yee
,
H.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Chai
,
O.
,
Jie
,
Y.
,
Lim
,
T.
,
Ramana
,
P.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
R.
,
Chang
,
H.
,
Tang
,
T.
,
Chiang
,
S.
,
Cheng
,
D.
, and
Tseng
,
T. J.
, 2008, “
Optimization and Characterization of Flexible Polymeric Optical Waveguide Fabrication Process for Fully Embedded Board-level Optical Interconnects
,”
IEEE/Electronic Packaging and Technology Conference Proceedings
, December 2008, pp.
1114
1120
.
8.
Teo
,
C.
,
Liang
,
W.
,
Yee
,
H.
,
Lim
,
L.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Chai
,
J.
,
Jie
,
Y.
,
Lim
,
T.
,
Ramana
,
P.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
R.
,
Tang
,
T.
,
Chiang
,
S.
,
Cheng
,
D.
, and
Tseng
,
T. J.
, 2009, “
Fabrication and Optimization of the 45 deg Micro-Mirrors for 3-D Optical Interconnections
,”
IEEE/Electronic Packaging and Technology Conference Proceedings
, December 2008, pp.
1121
1125
.
9.
Chang
,
C.
,
Chang
,
J.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
A.
,
Tang
,
T.
,
Chiang
,
S.
,
Lee
,
M.
,
Tseng
,
T. J.
,
Tan
,
C.
,
Lim
,
L.
,
Jie
,
Y.
,
Teo
,
C.
, and
Chai
,
J.
, 2009, “
Fabrication of Fully Embedded Board-level Optical Interconnects and Optoelectronic Printed Circuit Boards
,”
IEEE/Electronic Packaging and Technology Conference Proceedings
, December 2009, pp.
973
976
.
10.
Yuzo
,
I.
,
Koike
,
S.
,
Arai
,
Y.
, and
Ando
,
Y.
, 2003, “
SMT-Compatible Large-Tolerance “OptoBump” Interface for Interchip Optical Interconnections
,”
IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.
,
26
(
2
), pp.
122
127
.
11.
Johnson
and
Caletka
, “
Passive Alignment of VCSELs to Waveguides in Opto-Electronics Cards and Printed Circuit Boards
,” U.S. Patent No. 2005/0089264A1.
12.
Schares
,
L.
, 2006, “
Terabus: Terabit/Second-Class Card-Level Optical Interconnect Technologies
,”
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron
,”
12
(
5
), pp.
1032
1044
.
13.
Doany
,
F.
,
Schow
,
C.
,
Tsang
,
C.
,
Ruiz
,
N.
,
Horton
,
R.
,
Kuchta
,
D.
,
Patel
,
C.
,
Kuickerbocker
,
J.
, and
Kash
,
J.
, 2008, “
300-Gbps 24-Channel Bidirectional Si Carrier Transceiver Optochip for Board-Level Interconnects
,”
IEEE/Electronic Components and Technology Conference Proceedings
, pp.
238
243
.
14.
Daoqiang
,
L.
,
Tang
,
T.
,
He
,
J.
, and
Zarbock
,
E.
, 2008, “
Chip-to-Chip Optical Interconnect
,” U.S. Patent No. 7373033B22008.
15.
Chen
,
R. T.
, 2001, “
Packaging Enhanced Board Level Opto-Electronic Interconnects
,” U.S. Patent No. 6243509B1.
16.
Chen
,
Y. M.
,
Cheng
,
L.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
H. H.
,
Chen
,
Y. C.
,
Chu
,
Y.
, and
Hsieh
,
T. E.
, 2005, “
10Gbps Multi-Mode Waveguide for Optical Interconnect
,”
IEEE Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference
, pp.
1739
1743
.
17.
Shioda
,
T.
, 2007, “
Recent Progress and Potential Markets for Optical Circuit Boards
,”
IEEE Proceedings of Polytronic Conference
, pp.
1
3
.
18.
Hiramatsu
,
S.
,
Miura
,
K.
, and
Hirao
,
K.
, 2007, “
Optical Backplane Connectors Using Three-Dimensional Waveguide Arrays
,”
IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.
,
25
(
9
), pp.
2776
2782
.
19.
Chang
,
G. K.
, 2006, “
High-speed, High-density Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Computing and Communications Systems
,”
IME Seminar
, April 13.
20.
Glebov
,
A. L.
,
Uchibori
,
C. J.
, and
Lee
,
M. G.
, 2007, “
Direct Attach of Photonic Components on Substrates with Optical Interconnects
,”
IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
,
19
(
8
), pp.
547
549
.
21.
Holden
,
H. T.
, 2003, “
The Developing Technologies of Integrated Optical Waveguides in Printed Circuits
,”
Circuit World
,
29
(
4
), pp.
42
50
.
22.
Pugliano
,
N.
,
Chiarotto
,
N.
,
Fisher
,
J.
,
Heiks
,
N.
,
Ho
,
T.
,
Khanarian
,
G.
,
Moynihan
,
M.
,
Pawlowski
,
N.
,
Shelnut
,
J.
,
Sherrer
,
D.
,
Sicard
,
B.
, and
Zheng
,
H. B.
, 2004, “
Progress Toward the Development of Manufacturable Integrated Optical Data Buses
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
5358
, pp.
71
79
.
23.
Wang
,
L.
,
Choi
,
J.
,
Wang
,
X. L.
,
Chen
,
R. T.
,
Hass
,
D.
, and
Magera
,
J.
, 2004, “
Thin Film Optical Wavegide and Optoelectronic Device Integration for Fully Embedded Board Level Optical Interconnects
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
5556
, pp.
1
13
.
24.
Lee
,
B.
,
Pamidigantham
,
R.
, and
Premachandran
,
C. S.
, 2005, “
Prototype Development for Chip-Chip Interconnection by Multimode Waveguide
,”
IEEE Proceedings of Electronic Packaging and Technology Conference
, pp.
488
491
.
25.
Schow
,
C. L.
,
Doany
,
F. E.
,
Liboiron-Ladouceur
,
O.
,
Baks
,
C.
,
Kuchta
,
D. M.
,
Schares
,
L.
,
John
,
R.
, and
Kash
,
J. A.
, 2007, “
160-Gb/s, 16-Channel Full-Duplex, Single-Chip CMOS Optical Transceiver
,”
Proceedings of OThG4
, pp.
1
3
.
26.
Dellmann
,
L.
,
Berger
,
C.
,
Beyeler
,
R.
,
Dangel
,
R.
,
Gmur
,
M.
,
Hamelin
,
R.
,
Horst
,
F.
,
Lamprecht
,
T.
,
Meier
,
N.
,
Morf
,
T.
,
Oggioni
,
S.
,
Spreafico
,
M.
,
Stevens
,
R.
, and
Offrein
,
B. J.
, 2007, “
120 Gb/s Optical Card-to-Card Interconnect Link Demonstrator with Embedded Waveguides
,”
IEEE Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference
, pp.
1288
1293
.
27.
Mikawa
,
T.
,
Kinoshita
,
M.
,
Hiruma
,
K.
,
Ishitsuka
,
T.
,
Okabe
,
M.
,
Hiramatsu
,
S.
,
Furuyama
,
H.
,
Matsui
,
T.
,
Kumai
,
K.
,
Ibaragi
,
O.
, and
Bonkohara
,
M.
, 2003, “
Implementation of Active Interposer for High-Speed and Low-Cost Chip Level Optical Interconnects
,”
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.
,
9
(
2
), pp.
452
459
.
28.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Wong
,
C. P.
,
Lee
,
N. C.
,
Lee
,
R.
,
Electronics Manufacturing With Lead-Free, Halogen-Free, and Adhesive Materials
(
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
, 2003).
29.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
C. K.
,
Premachandran
,
C. S.
, and
Yu
,
A.
, 2010,
Advanced MEMS Packaging
, (
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
, 2010).
30.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Reliability of RoHS Compliant 2D & 3D IC Interconnects
, (
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
, 2011).
You do not currently have access to this content.