Solder joint fatigue failure under vibration loading continues to be a concern in microelectronic industry. Existing literature has not adequately addressed high-cycle fatigue failure of high-lead solder joints, especially under a broad spectrum of vibration frequencies. Also, damage mapping across solder joints in an area-array package has not been effectively studied using numerical models and experimental cross sectioning. This paper aims to develop an experimental and modeling approach that can accurately determine the solder joint behavior of electronic components under vibration conditions. In particular, this paper discusses the out-of-plane sinusoidal vibration experiments at 1G, numerical modeling, and fatigue life prediction for a 42.5×42.5×4mm3 1089 input∕output ceramic column grid array (CCGA) package on a 133×56×2.8mm3 FR4 board. Detailed investigation and characterization involving dye-and-pry analysis, microstructural examination, and numerical modeling enabled the development of a high-cycle stress-based equation for lead-containing CCGA under sinusoidal loading. The developed approach has been applied to a number of cases including a CCGA package with a heat sink as well as a CCGA package subjected to frequency sweeps. It is seen that the predictions from the developed model agree well with experimental data and that the developed model can map the evolution of solder damage across all solder joints and can also provide important design recommendations in terms of solder joint location as well as heat sink attachment.

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