Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received May 2003; final revision, January 2004. Associate Editor: W. King.

For realistic design, reliability and failure analysis of materials such as solders for problems in electronic packaging, it is essential to develop and validate appropriate constitutive models. Such models should include effect of important factors such as elastic, plastic and creep behavior, microcracking leading to fracture and failure, and cyclic mechanical and thermal loading including rate, dwell time, and amplitude.

To characterize a constitutive model, it is also essential to identify material parameters and their physical meaning. Then, the important consideration is to calibrate for the constitutive parameters based on realistic tests by using appropriate test devices. Objective: The main objective of these two-part papers is (1) to adopt the disturbed state concept (DSC) to incorporate...

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