In the present study, a new constitutive model for eutectic solders (63Sn37Pb) is proposed. Grain sizes and phase sizes are considered as the coarsening is one of the main reasons for failure of solder joints. The present model has been developed based on the combination of grain boundary sliding and matrix dislocation deformation mechanisms in order to describe a thermo-mechanical behavior of eutectic solders. Internal stress tensors are also introduced to describe the transient behaviors during the tensile test and first stage creep. A series of tensile, creep, and creep recover tests were conducted at temperature range from −10 to 100°C. The specimens with two different phase sizes were tested. Good agreements were obtained between the experimental results and the model.

1.
Grivas
,
D.
,
Murty
,
K. L.
, and
Morris
,
J. W.
,
1979
, “
Deformation of Pb-Sn Eutectic Alloys at Relatively High Strain Rates
,”
Acta Metall.
,
27
, pp.
731
737
.
2.
Mei
,
Z.
,
Morris
,
J. W.
,
Shine
,
M. C.
, and
Summers
,
T. S. E.
,
1991
, “
Effects of Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Near-eutectic Tin-Lead Solder Joints
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
20
, No.
8
, pp.
599
608
.
3.
Frear
,
D.
,
Grivas
,
D.
, and
Morris
,
J. W.
,
1997
, “
A Microstructural Study of The Thermal Fatigue Failures of 60Sn40Pb Solder Joints
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
17
, No.
2
, pp.
280
285
.
4.
Hacke
,
P. L.
,
Sprecher
,
A. F.
, and
Conrad
,
H.
,
1997
, “
Microstructure Coarsening during Thermomechanical Fatigue of Pb-Sn Solder Joints
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
26
, No.
7
, pp.
774
782
.
5.
Hacke
,
P. L.
,
Fahmy
,
Y.
, and
Conrad
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Phase Coarsening and Crack Growth Rate during Thermo-Mechanical Cycling of 63Sn37Pb Solder Joints
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
27
, No.
8
, pp.
941
947
.
6.
Sayama, T., Takayanagi, T., and Mori, T., 1999, “Analysis of Phase Growth Process in Sn/Pb Eutectic Solder Joint,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, EEP-Vol. 26-1, ASME, pp. 581–587.
7.
Geogre
,
D. O.
,
Michael
,
S. P.
,
Joleen
,
R. P.
,
Greg
,
A. L.
, and
Robert
,
V. M.
,
1987
, “
Pb-Sn Alloy Microstructure: Potential Reliability Indicator for Interconnects
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.
,
10
, No.
1
, pp.
82
88
.
8.
Darveaux
,
R.
, and
Banerji
,
K.
,
1992
, “
Constitutive Relations for Tin-based Solder Joints
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.
,
15
, No.
6
, pp.
1013
1024
.
9.
Knecht
,
S.
, and
Fox
,
L. R.
,
1990
, “
Constitutive Relation and Creep-Fatigue Life Model for Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.
,
13
, No.
2
, pp.
424
433
.
10.
Busso
,
E. P.
,
Kitano
,
M.
, and
Kumazawa
,
T.
,
1992
, “
A viscoplastic Constitutive Model for 60/40 Tin-Lead Solder used in IC Package Joints
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
114
, pp.
331
337
.
11.
Fu
,
C.
,
McDowell
,
D. L.
, and
Ume
,
I. C.
,
1998
, “
A Finite Element Procedure of Cyclic Thermoviscoplasticity Model for Solder and Copper Interconnects
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
120
, pp.
24
34
.
12.
Ishikawa
,
H.
,
Sasaki
,
K.
, and
Ohguchi
,
K.
,
1996
, “
Prediction of Fatigue Failure of 60Sn-40Pb Solder using Constitutive Model for Cyclic Viscoplasticity
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
118
, pp.
164
169
.
13.
Skipor
,
A. F.
,
Harren
,
S. V.
, and
Botsis
,
J.
,
1996
, “
On the Constitutive response of 63/37Sn/Pb Eutectic Solder
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
118
, pp.
1
11
.
14.
Desai
,
C. S.
,
1997
, “
Thermomechanical Response of Materials and Interfaces in Electronic Packaging. Part II-Unified Constitutive Models, Vialation, and Design
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
119
, pp.
301
309
.
15.
Qian, Z. F., and Liu, S., 1997, “A Unified Viscoplastic Constitutive model for Tin-Lead Solder Joints,” Proceedings of INTEPACK-1997, Advances in Electronic Packaging, EEP-Vol 19-2, ASME, pp. 1599–1604.
16.
Burchett, S. N., Neilsen, M. K. and Frear, D. R., 1997, “Computational Continuum Modeling of Solder Interconnect: Applications,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, ASME, pp. 1523–1527.
17.
Maciuoeseu, L., Sham, T. L., and Krempl, E., 1992, “VBO: A State Variable Constitutive Equation for A Solder Alloy,” Proceedings of INTEPACK-1992, Advances in Electronic Packaging, EEP- Vol-19-2, ASME, pp. 1615–1621.
18.
Freed
,
A. D.
, and
Walk
,
K. P.
,
1995
, “
Viscoplastic Model Development With An Eye Toward Characterization
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
117
, pp.
8
13
.
19.
Wong
,
B.
,
Helling
,
D. E.
, and
Clark
,
R. W.
,
1998
, “
A creep-rupture Model for Two-Phase Eutectic Solders
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.
,
11
, No.
3
, pp.
284
290
.
20.
Guo
,
Z.
,
Sprecher
,
A. F.
, and
Conrad
,
H.
,
1992
, “
Plastic Deformation Kinetics of Eutectic Pb-Sn Solder Joints in Monotonic Loading and Low-Cycle Fatigue
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
114
, pp.
112
117
.
You do not currently have access to this content.