A zero-insertion-force (ZIF) connector spring was designed with the multiple requirements of maintaining precise normal force, yielding sufficient wipe, and having low friction-and-wear characteristics. Since accurate response data as well as quick appraising methods were needed, both analytical and numerical (finite element) methods of stress analysis were used to calculate actuation against a circuit card contact. Both material plasticity and large deformation nonlinearities were considered to ensure design integrity. A statistical tolerance study of the ZIF connector was performed using Monte Carlo techniques. The results were used to provide dimensional limits for strength, and to predict the probability of contacts projecting into the circuit card slot, impeding connector actuation.

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