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Keywords: freezing
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Journal Articles
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. June 2011, 8(3): 031006.
Published Online: February 18, 2011
...Michael Mangold; Silvia Piewek; Olaf Klein; Achim Kienle A simple model for the start-up of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack is proposed. The model covers a wide temperature range from temperatures below the freezing point of water to usual operation temperatures of a low-temperature fuel...
Journal Articles
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. February 2011, 8(1): 011010.
Published Online: November 3, 2010
... in X - and Z -directions, as shown in Fig. 3 , where the heat insulator with a certain thickness encompasses an entire PEMFC stack. However, below − 2 ° C freezing of water inside the PEMFC could form ice layers in the electrode and in the gas diffusion layer. Therefore, the cell...