Thermal management system (TMS) plays an essential part in improving the safety and durability of the battery pack. Prior studies mainly focused on controlling the maximum temperature and temperature difference of the battery pack. Little attention has been paid to the influence of the TMS on thermal runaway (TR) prevention of battery packs. In this paper, a heat pipe-based thermal management system (HPTMS) is designed and investigated to illustrate both the capabilities of temperature controlling and TR propagation preventing. Good thermal performance could be achieved under discharge and charge cycles of both 2 C rate and 3 C rate while the equivalent heat dissipation coefficient of the HPTMS is calculated above 70 W/(m 2 ·K). In the TR propagation test triggered by overcharge, the surface temperature of the battery adjacent to the overcharged cell can be controlled below 215 °C, the onset temperature of TR obtained by the adiabatic TR test of a single cell. Therefore, TR propagation is prevented due to the high heat dissipation of the HPTMS. To conclude, the proposed HPTMS is an effective solution for the battery pack to maintain the operating temperature and improve the safety level under abuse conditions.