The increasing use of electrical vehicles aroused the problem of batteries charging and the consequent interface with the power grid. Commercial charging solutions are mostly based on unidirectional power flow converters; however, bidirectional power flow converters are an interesting solution when considering smart microgrid applications, with benefits in efficient energy use. In this context, the paper presents a bidirectional power flow converter for grid-to-vehicle (G2V) or vehicle-to-grid (V2G) applications. The conversion system is based on a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), which assures the grid connection with a unitary power factor. The direct current (DC) bus of the voltage source inverter is connected to a DC/DC converter that controls the battery power flow. This conversion system can operate in G2V mode when charging the battery or in V2G mode when working as an energy storage system and the power flow is from the battery to the power grid. The conversion system model is presented as well as the control strategy proposed. Simulation and experimental results showing voltages and currents in the circuit are also presented.

References

References
1.
Wiguna
,
V.
,
2013
,
Knowing the EV Charging Ecosystem – Fast Charging Infrastructure, Power Conversion
.
2.
Yilmaz
,
M.
, and
Krein
,
P. T.
,
2013
, “
Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels, and Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
,
28
(
5
), pp.
2151
2159
.
3.
Etezadi-Amoli
,
M.
,
Choma
,
K.
, and
Stefani
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Rapid-Charge Electric-Vehicle Stations
,”
Trans. Power Deliv., IEEE
,
25
(
3
), pp.
1883
1887
.
4.
Haghbin
,
S.
,
Khan
,
K.
,
Lundmark
,
S.
,
Alakula
,
M.
,
Carlson
,
O.
,
Leksell
,
M.
, and
Wallmark
,
O.
,
2010
, “
Integrated Chargers for EV’s and PHEV’s: Examples and New Solutions
,”
XIX International Conference on Electrical Machines, IEEE
,
Rome, Italy
,
Sept. 6–8
.
5.
Milchram
,
C.
, and
Hillerbrand
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Energy Justice and Smart Grid Systems: Evidence From the Netherlands and the United Kingdom!
,”
Applied Energy
,
229
(
1
), pp.
1244
1259
.
6.
Chaves
,
M.
,
Margato
,
E.
,
Silva
,
J. F.
, and
Pinto
,
S. F.
,
2010
, “
New Approach in Back-to-Back n-Level Diode-Clamped Multilevel Converter Modeling and Direct Current Bus Voltages Balancing
,”
IET Power Electronics
,
3
(
4
), pp.
578
589
.
7.
Lozano
,
J. G.
,
Montero
,
M. I. M.
,
Martínez
,
M. A. G.
, and
Cadaval
,
E. R.
,
2011
, “
Three-Phase Bidirectional Battery Charger for Smart Electric Vehicles
,”
2011 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)
,
Tallinn, Estonia
,
June 1–3
.
8.
André
,
R.
,
Carreira
,
P.
,
Neves
,
A.
,
Fortunato
,
C.
,
Santana
,
J.
,
Pinto
,
S.
,
Gambôa
,
P.
,
Chaves
,
M.
, and
Jesus
,
H.
,
2015
, “
EDP Distribuição’s Inovgrid First Electrical Energy Storage Project
,”
23rd International Conference on Electricity Distribution
,
Lyon, France
,
June 15–18
.
9.
Marques
,
G. D.
,
Pires
,
V.
,
Malinowski
,
M.
, and
Kazmierkowski
,
M.
,
2007
, “
An Improved Synchronous Reference Frame Method for Active Filters
,”
EUROCON 2007 The International Conference on Computer as a Tool
,
Warsaw, Poland
,
Sept. 9–12
.
10.
Svensson
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Synchronisation Methods for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters
,”
IEE Proc. Gener. Trans. Dist. IET J.
,
148
(
3
), pp.
229
235
.
11.
Tan
,
S.-C.
,
Lai
,
Y.-M.
, and
Tse
,
C. K.
,
2011
,
Sliding Mode Control of Switching Power Converters: Techniques and Implementation
,
1st ed
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
12.
Tremblay
,
O.
, and
Dessaint
,
L.-A.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications
,”
World Electr. Veh. J.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
289
298
.
13.
Shi
,
L.
,
Meintz
,
A.
, and
Ferdowsi
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Single-Phase Bidirectional AC-DC Converters for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications
,”
2008 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
,
Harbin, China
,
Sept. 3–5
.
14.
Vermulst
,
B.
,
Duarte
,
J.
,
Wijnands
,
C.
, and
Lomonova
,
E.
,
2016
, “
Quad-Active-Bridge Single-Stage Bidirectional Three-Phase AC–DC Converter With Isolation: Introduction and Optimized Modulation
,”
Trans. Power Electron., IEEE
,
32
(
4
), pp.
2546
2557
.
You do not currently have access to this content.