Key processing steps in the thin-film process of manufacturing catalyst layers for direct methanol fuel cells are catalyst ink formulation and its application. The catalyst ink is typically composed of supported or unsupported catalysts, binder (ionomer), solvents, and additives. Rheological properties of the ink, amount of binder, and choice of solvents are tuned to match the particular ink application process used to fabricate the electrode, as each coating process has its own unique requirements. Besides affecting the coating process, the choice and ratios of these components can significantly affect the electrochemical performance of the electrode. In this study, catalyst inks are designed and investigated for the spraying process, for utilization in the continuous fabrication of DMFC electrodes. For this purpose, the effect of the binder (ionomer) content on the performance of the electrodes is studied in detail. Decal-transfer electrodes are fabricated on a custom-built automated spraying apparatus with individually specified anode and cathode binder contents, and assembled to form a catalyst coated membrane (CCM) type membrane electrode assembly (MEA). These electrodes are rigorously tested to specifically identify their electrochemical performance, catalyst utilization and electrode morphology.

References

References
1.
Litster
,
S.
, and
Mclean
,
G.
, 2004, “
PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes
,”
J. Power Sources
,
130
(
1–2
), pp.
61
76
.
2.
Raistrick
,
I. D.
, 1989, “
Electrode Assembly for Use in Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,876,115.
3.
Srinivasan
,
S.
,
Ticianelli
,
E. A.
,
Derouin
,
C. R.
, and
Redondo
,
A.
, 1987, “
Advances in Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology With Low Platinum Loading Electrodes
,”
J. Power Sources
,
22
(
3–4
), pp.
359
375
.
4.
Ticianelli
,
E. A.
,
Derouin
,
C. R.
,
Redondo
,
A.
, and
Srinivasan
,
S.
, 1988, “
Methods to Advance Technology of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
135
(
9
), pp.
2209
2214
.
5.
Park
,
I.-S.
,
Li
,
W.
, and
Manthiram
,
A.
, 2010, “
Fabrication of Catalyst-Coated Membrane-Electrode Assemblies by Doctor Blade Method and Their Performance in Fuel Cells
,”
J. Power Sources
,
195
(Compendex), pp.
7078
7082
.
6.
Bender
,
G.
,
Zawodzinski
,
T. A.
, and
Saab
,
A. P.
, 2003, “
Fabrication of High Precision PEFC Membrane Electrode Assemblies
,”
J. Power Sources
,
124
(
1
), pp.
114
117
.
7.
Chun
,
Y.-G.
,
Kim
,
C.-S.
,
Peck
,
D.-H.
, and
Shin
,
D.-R.
, 1998, “
Performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell With Thin Film Catalyst Electrodes
,”
J. Power Sources
,
71
(
1–2
), pp.
174
178
.
8.
Manco
,
J.
,
Capuano
,
C.
,
Nava
,
J.
, and
Tinoco
,
F.
, 2006, “
Method of Making an Electrode for a Membrane Electrode Assembly and Method of Making the Membrane Electrode Assembly
,” U.S. Patent No. 7,153,802.
9.
Reshetenko
,
T. V.
,
Kim
,
H.-T.
,
Krewer
,
U.
, and
Kweon
,
H.-J.
, 2007, “
The Effect of the Anode Loading and Method of MEA Fabrication on DMFC Performance
,”
Fuel Cells
,
7
(
3
), pp.
238
245
.
10.
Koraishy
,
B. M.
,
Morter
,
D.
,
Solomon
,
S.
,
Mcdonald
,
B.
,
Meyers
,
J. P.
, and
Wood
,
K.
, 2010, “
Manufacturing of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes by Spraying
,”
ECS Trans.
,
33
(
1
), pp.
1997
2010
.
11.
Ren
,
X.
,
Wilson
,
M. S.
, and
Gottesfeld
,
S.
, 1996, “
High Performance Direct Methanol Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
143
(
1
), pp.
12
15
.
12.
Thomas
,
S. C.
,
Ren
,
X.
, and
Gottesfeld
,
S.
, 1999, “
Influence of Ionomer Content in Catalyst Layers on Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performance
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
146
(
12
), pp.
4354
4359
.
13.
Sister
,
V. G.
,
Fateev
,
V. N.
, and
Bokach
,
D. A.
, 2007, “
Effect of the Fuel Electrode Composition and Structure on the Performance of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
,”
Russ. J. Electrochem.
,
43
(
9
), pp.
1097
1100
.
14.
Ren
,
X.
,
Springer
,
T.
, and
Gottesfeld
,
S.
, 2000, “
Water and Methanol Uptakes in Nafion Membranes and Membrane Effects on Direct Methanol Cell Performance
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
147
, pp.
92
98
.
15.
Wilson
,
M.
, and
Gottesfeld
,
S.
, 1992, “
Thin-Film Catalyst Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes
,”
J. Appl. Electrochem.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
You do not currently have access to this content.