The paper presents a model for the off-design analysis of a hybrid plant based on a MCFC and a gas-turbine. The model is used to define a possible regulation strategy for the power plant, minimizing the performance decay at partial load and allowing investigation of the interaction issues among the different plant components. The hybrid plant reflects at nominal conditions the expected performances for the 500 kW-class MCFC plant proposed by Ansaldo Fuel Cells. The simulation is carried out respecting the matching of the gas-turbine and the part-load behavior of the fuel cell and the heat exchangers. The gas-turbine is modeled through compressor and turbine performance maps, and the FC is modeled through a finite volume code. The results indicate the possibility to regulate effectively the plant power output acting on the turbine shaft speed, the air-to-fuel ratio, the bypass of cathode air, and the fuel utilization, achieving very high part-load efficiency and respecting constraints on the admitted operating range for the plant components.

1.
Dennis
,
R.
,
Burch
,
G.
,
Williams
,
M.
,
Hoffman
,
P.
,
Gross
,
R.
, and
Samuelsen
,
S.
, 2003, “
Hybrid Power: A 2003 Perspective for the Decade
,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38950.
2.
Litzinger
,
K.
,
Veyo
,
S.
,
Shockling
,
L.
, and
Lundberg
,
W.
, “
Comparative Evaluation of SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System Options
,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68909.
3.
Torrazza
,
A.
, 2005, “
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells: An Application of High Temperature Molten Salts Now Approaching the Energy Market
,”
Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology
, Tolouse, France, pp.
411
418
.
4.
Ghezel-Ayagh
,
H.
,
Sanderson
,
R.
, and
Walzak
,
J.
, 2005, “
Development of Hybrid Power Systems Based on Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine Cycle
,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68119.
5.
Marcenaro
,
B.
, 2006, “
Manufacturing and Field Testing of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
,”
Proceedings of the Fuel Cell Seminar
, Honolulu, HI.
6.
Marcenaro
,
B.
, and
Torazza
,
A.
, 2006, “
MCFC Development at Ansaldo
,”
Proceedings of the Fuel Cell Forum
, Lucerne, Switzerland.
7.
Campanari
,
S.
,
Iora
,
P.
,
Macchi
,
E.
, and
Silva
,
P.
, 2007, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of Integrated MCFC/Gas Turbine Cycles for Multi-MW Scale Power Generation
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
4
, pp.
308
316
.
8.
Chiesa
,
P.
, and
Macchi
,
E.
, 2004, “
A Thermodynamic Analysis of Different Options to Break 60% Electric Efficiency in Combined Cycle Power Plants
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
126
(
4
), pp.
770
785
.
9.
Gemmen
,
R.
,
Liese
,
E.
,
Rivera
,
J.
,
Jabbari
,
F.
, and
Brouwer
,
J.
, 2000, “
Development of Dynamic Modeling Tools for Solid Oxide and Molten Carbonate Hybrid Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Systems
,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-554.
10.
Campanari
,
S.
, 2000, “
Full Load and Part-Load Performance Prediction for Integrated SOFC and Microturbine Systems
,”
Trans. ASME: J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
122
, pp.
239
246
.
11.
Kurz
,
R.
, 2005, “
Parameter Optimization on Combined Gas Turbine—Fuel Cell Power Plants
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
2
, pp.
268
273
.
12.
Bedont
,
P.
,
Grillo
,
O.
, and
Massardo
,
A.
, 2003, “
Off-Design Performance Analysis of a Hybrid System Based on an Existing Molten Fuel Cell Stack
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
125
(
4
), pp.
986
993
.
13.
Traverso
,
A.
,
Massardo
,
A.
,
Roberts
,
R. A.
,
Brouwer
,
J.
, and
Samuelsen
,
S.
, 2007, “
Gas Turbine Assessment for Air Management of Pressurized SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
4
, pp.
373
383
.
14.
Iora
,
P.
, and
Campanari
,
S.
, 2007, “
Development of a 3D MCFC Model and Application to Hybrid Cycle Simulations
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
4
, pp.
501
510
.
15.
Roberts
,
R.
, and
Brouwer
,
J.
, 2006, “
Dynamic Simulation of a Pressurized 220 kW Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell—Gas-Turbine Hybrid System: Modeled Performance Compared to Measured Results
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
3
, pp.
18
25
.
16.
Tsourapas
,
V.
,
Sun
,
J.
, and
Stefanopoulou
,
A.
, 2009, “
Control Oriented Analysis of a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine System
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
6
, p.
041008
.
18.
Campanari
,
S.
, and
Macchi
,
E.
, 2002, “
Future Potentials of MTGs: Hybrid Cycles and Tri-Generation
,”
Micro Turbine Generators
,
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd.
,
England
, pp.
43
66
.
19.
Danelli
,
A.
, and
Spelta
,
S.
, 2002, “
Mathematical Model of a Gas Microturbine. Implementation Lego-Simulink, Comparison With Experimental Measurements and Dynamic Analysis of the Application to a Low Voltage Grid. In Italian
,” project Ricerca di Sistema, CESI, www.cesiricerca.itwww.cesiricerca.it.
20.
Lamquet
,
O.
, and
Prandoni
,
V.
, 2002, “
Specification of Control Systems for the Integrated MCFC Fuel Cell-Microturbine Plant. In Italian
,” project Ricerca di Sistema, CESI, www.cesiricerca.itwww.cesiricerca.it.
21.
Incropera
,
F. P.
, and
DeWitt
,
D. P.
, 1990,
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
,
3rd ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.