The fact that 65% of the oil use is by the transportation sector, the increasing gap between the oil supply and demand, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions make the introduction of alternative fuels, together with large energy efficiency gains, a key to sustainable mobility, both nationally and globally. The history of alternative fuels has not been very successful. Various economic, social, and technological barriers have impeded the acceptance of energy carriers such as hydrogen as a major transportation fuel. An effective interaction between the societal system of vehicle owners and a supply infrastructure of alternative fuels is needed for mass adoption of these future technologies. However, hydrogen due to its production pathways, particularly from renewable resources, inexhaustible, and clean nature, an ubiquitous presence and its promise of a sustainable transportable energy source give it a strong edge to be fuel of the future. This paper discusses the economical, social, and technological implications on the use of hydrogen as a future transport fuel. Furthermore, three cases based on UK Department of Transport studies showing the penetration of high efficiency vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), and hydrogen fuel internal combustion engine vehicles ($H2$-ICEs) into the future transport fleet are discussed. With some assumptions, it indicates clearly that by the end of 2050 the $H2$-ICEs will play a major role in the UK transport sector whereas more time is needed for FCVs due to their less compelling consumer value possibility. Also, it can be inferred that the emissions from hydrogen’s full life cycle are about half those of the direct emissions from nonrenewable fuels such as the natural gas from which it is produced, thereby showing a promising future of hydrogen fuel to cope with the problem of climate change and the continuously increasing scarcity of conventional/fossil fuels.

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