This paper analyzes and compares transient and steady-state performance characteristics of different types of single-shaft turbo-machinery for controlling the air through a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that is integrated into a SOFC/GT pressurized hybrid system. Analyses are focused on the bottoming part of the cycle, where the gas turbine (GT) has the role of properly managing airflow to the SOFC stack for various loads and at different ambient conditions. Analyses were accomplished using two disparate computer programs, which each modeled a similar SOFC/GT cycle using identical generic gas turbine performance maps. The models are shown to provide consistent results, and they are used to assess: (1) the influence of SOFC exhaust composition on expander behavior for on-design conditions, (2) the off-design performance of the bypass, bleed, and variable speed controls for various part-load conditions and for different ambient conditions; (3) the features of such controls during abrupt transients such as load trip and bypass/bleed valve failure. The results show that a variable speed microturbine is the best option for off-design operation of a SOFC/GT hybrid system. For safety measures a bleed valve provides adequate control of the system during load trip. General specifications for a radial GT engine for integration with a pressurized SOFC stack are identified, which allow operation under a wide range of ambient conditions as well as several different cycle configurations.
Gas Turbine Assessment for Air Management of Pressurized SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems
Traverso, A., Massardo, A., Roberts, R. A., Brouwer, J., and Samuelsen, S. (June 9, 2006). "Gas Turbine Assessment for Air Management of Pressurized SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems." ASME. J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol. November 2007; 4(4): 373–383. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2714567
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