Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have measured the performance of a residential fuel cell system when subjected to various environmental and load conditions. The system, which uses natural gas as its source fuel, is capable of generating electrical power at three nominal power levels (2.5, 4.0, and $5.0kW$) while providing thermal energy for user-supplied loads. Testing was conducted to determine the influence of ambient temperature, relative humidity, electrical load, and thermal load on system performance. Steady-state and transient tests were conducted. The steady-state tests were performed in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineering Fuel Cell Power Systems Performance Test Code (PTC-50) for fuel cell power systems. The results of the investigation are being used to develop a proposed rating procedure for residential fuel cell units.

1.
Bullock
,
D.
,
Atul
,
K.
, and
Rabago
,
K.
, 2005, “
Are Stationary Fuel Cells Ready for Market?
,”
Fuel Cell Magazine
,
4
(
6
), pp.
16
18
.
2.
Williams
,
M.
,
Utz
,
B.
, and
Moore
,
K.
, 2004, “
DOE FE Distributed Generation Program
,”
J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
1550-624X,
1
, pp.
18
20
.
3.
Ellis
,
M. W.
, and
Gunes
,
M. B.
, 2002, “
Status of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications in Buildings
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
0001-2505,
108
(
1
), pp.
1032
1044
.
4.
U. S. Department of Defense
, 2005,
U. S. DOD fuel cell demonstration program home page, cited Feb 18, 2005
, available at http://www.dodfuelcell.com/res/site_performance.php4http://www.dodfuelcell.com/res/site_performance.php4
5.
Gigliucci
,
G.
et al.
, 2004, “
Demonstration of a Residential CHP System Based on PEM Fuel Cells
,”
J. Power Sources
0378-7753,
131
, pp.
62
68
.
6.
Boettner
,
D.
,
Massie
,
C.
, and
Massie
,
D.
, 2004, “
Lessons Learned from Residential Experience with Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Science, Engineering, and Technology Conference
, pp.
267
272
.
7.
Holcomb
,
F.
,
Davenport
,
B.
,
Josefik
,
N.
, and
Binder
,
M.
, 2004, “
Results of a Residential Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Demonstration at a Military Facility in New York
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
0001-2505,
110
(
1
), pp.
25
32
.
8.
ASME PTC 50-2002
, “
Fuel Cell Power Systems Performance
,” 2002, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
9.
Davis
,
M.
, and
Fanney
,
A.
, 2003, “
Test Facility for Determining the Seasonal Performance of Residential Fuel Cell Systems
,”
Proceedings of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003 Conference and Trade Show
,
Vancouver, BC
, June 8–11.
10.
U. S. Department of Energy-Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
, 1998, “
Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters
,” 10 CFR Part 430. Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430.
11.
Gunes
,
B.
, and
Ellis
,
M.
, 2003, “
Evaluation of Energy, Environmental, and Economic Characteristics of Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems for Residential Applications
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
0195-0738,
125
, pp.
208
220
.