First, nano-spherical iron phosphate was prepared using the hydrothermal method. Then, the carbothermal reduction method was applied to synthesize the LiFePO4/C composite material capable of good carbon coating effect with the prepared nano-spherical iron phosphate as a precursor. By means of scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Zeta potentiometer, inductively coupled plasma spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical testing, and other methods, the material was characterized and tested for its morphology, particle size, composition, structure, and electrochemical performance. According to the test results, when the initial mass concentration of Fe3+ in the reaction solution is 2%, the amount of N and S impurity is merely 19 and 27 ppm, respectively. In the meantime, particle size is small, with a range of roughly 50–100 nm, and a spherical morphology is shown. The synthesized LiFePO4/C retains its nano-spherical morphology, which leads to a desirable carbon coating effect and an excellent electrochemical performance. The first charge–discharge specific capacity at 0.1 C rate reached 163.7 and 161.4 mAh/g, the charge–discharge efficiency was 98.6%, and the capacity retention rate at 50 charge–discharge cycles at 1 C rate reached 98.52%.