Rechargeable aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) have attracted much attention because of their high charge density, low cost, and low flammability. Transition metal sulfides are a class of cathode materials that have been extensively studied. In this report, Bi2S3 nanorods and Bi2S3/MoS2 nanorods were synthesized by the hydrothermal method as new type of cathode materials for rechargeable AIBs. The diameter of Bi2S3/MoS2 nanorods is 20–100 nm. The Bi2S3 nanorods display high initial charge and discharge capacities of 343.3 and 251 mA h/g with a current density of 1 A/g. The static cycling for the Bi2S3/MoS2 nanorods electrode at 1 A/g denotes high stability with a specific capacity of 132.9 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The charging voltage platform of Bi2S3 nanorods and Bi2S3/MoS2 nanorods is at 1.1–1.4 V, and the discharge voltage platform is at around 0.8 V. The well-defined heterojunction maintains the stability of the Bi2S3 structure during long-term cycling, which is desirable for aluminum ion batteries. This strategy reveals new insights for designing cathode materials of high-performance AIBs.