In the recent years, with the rapid advancements made in the technologies of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, selecting suitable batteries has become a major factor. Among the batteries currently used for these types of vehicles, the lithium-ion battery leads the race. Apart from that, the energy gained from regenerative braking in locomotives and vehicles can be stored in batteries for later use for propulsion thus improving the fuel consumption and efficiency. But batteries can be subjected to a wide range of temperatures depending upon the operating conditions. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the battery performance over a wide range of temperatures and different load conditions is necessary for their successful employment in future technologies. In this context, this study aims to experimentally analyze the performance of Li-ion batteries by monitoring the charge–discharge rates, efficiencies, and energy storage capabilities under different environmental and load conditions. Sensors and thermal imaging camera were used to track the environment and battery temperatures, whereas the charge–discharge characteristics were analyzed using CADEX analyzer. The results show that the battery performance is inversely proportional to charge–discharge rates. This is because, at higher charge–discharge rates, the polarization losses increase thus increasing internal heat generation and battery temperature. Also, based on the efficiency and energy storage ability, the optimum performing conditions of the Li-ion battery are 30–40 °C (temperature) and 0.5 C (C-rate).

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