We report a simple novel annealing technique for the synthesis of NbS2 nanoflakes. The synthesized NbS2 flakes were characterized well with different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and confirmed they are in 3R-NbS2 polymorph structure, which is semiconducting in nature. Later, they were successfully deposited onto carbon cloth (CC) and tested for Li–S cell. Lithium–sulfur batteries suffer from polysulfide (PS) shuttling effects which hinder the performance of the cell. High capacity fade, slow redox kinetics, and the low cyclability of cells are just some of the many problems caused by the shuttling effect that hinder the viability of the battery. Herein, we utilized the catalytic nature of NbS2 along with the high conductivity of CC for better PS adsorption, their liquid to solid conversion, fast PS redox kinetics which substantially enhanced the overall Li–S performance.

References

References
1.
Ji
,
X.
, and
Nazar
,
L. F.
,
2010
, “
Advances in Li-S Batteries
,”
J. Mater. Chem.
,
20
(
44
), pp.
9821
9826
.
2.
Bruce
,
P. G.
,
Freunberger
,
S. A.
,
Hardwick
,
L. J.
, and
Tarascon
,
J.-M.
,
2012
, “
Li-O2 and Li-S Batteries With High Energy Storage
,”
Nat. Mater.
,
11
(
1
), pp.
19
29
.
3.
Demir-Cakan
,
R.
,
Morcrette
,
M.
,
Gangulibabu
,
Gueguen, A.
,
Dedryvere
,
R.
, and
Tarascon
,
J.-M.
,
2013
, “
Li-S Batteries: Simple Approaches for Superior Performance
,”
Energy Environ. Sci.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
176
182
.
4.
Zhang
,
H.
,
Yu
,
X.
, and
Braun
,
P. V.
,
2011
, “
Three-Dimensional Bicontinuous Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Bulk Battery Electrodes
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
,
6
(
5
), pp.
277
281
.
5.
Manthiram
,
A.
,
Fu
,
Y.
,
Chung
,
S.-H.
,
Zu
,
C.
, and
Su
,
Y.-S.
,
2014
, “
Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
,”
Chem. Rev.
,
114
(
23
), pp.
11751
11787
.
6.
Zhang
,
S. S.
,
2013
, “
Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Battery: Fundamental Chemistry, Problems, and Solutions
,”
J. Power Sources
,
231
, pp.
153
162
.
7.
Song
,
M.-K.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
, and
Cairns
,
E. J.
,
2013
, “
A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance
,”
Nano Lett.
,
13
(
12
), pp.
5891
5899
.
8.
Mikhaylik
,
Y. V.
, and
Akridge
,
J. R.
,
2004
, “
Polysulfide Shuttle Study in the Li/S Battery System
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
151
(
11
), pp.
A1969
A1976
.
9.
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Wang
,
Y.
,
Seh
,
Z. W.
,
Fu
,
Z.
,
Zhang
,
R.
, and
Cui
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Understanding the Anchoring Effect of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
,”
Nano Lett.
,
15
(
6
), pp.
3780
3786
.
10.
Liang
,
X.
,
Hart
,
C.
,
Pang
,
Q.
,
Garsuch
,
A.
,
Weiss
,
T.
, and
Nazar
,
L. F.
,
2015
, “
A Highly Efficient Polysulfide Mediator for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
,”
Nat. Commun.
,
6
, p.
5682
.
11.
Liang
,
X.
,
Garsuch
,
A.
, and
Nazar
,
L. F.
,
2015
, “
Sulfur Cathodes Based on Conductive MXene Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
,”
Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.
,
54
(
13
), pp.
3907
3911
.
12.
Babu
,
G.
,
Masurkar
,
N.
,
Al Salem
,
H.
, and
Arava
,
L. M. R.
,
2017
, “
Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Atomic Layers for Lithium Polysulfides Electrocatalysis
,”
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
,
139
(
1
), pp.
171
178
.
13.
Fu
,
Y.
,
Su
,
Y.-S.
, and
Manthiram
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Li2S-Carbon Sandwiched Electrodes With Superior Performance for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
,”
Adv. Energy Mater.
,
4
(
1
), p.
1300655
.
14.
Kamphaus
,
E. P.
, and
Balbuena
,
P. B.
,
2016
, “
Long-Chain Polysulfide Retention at the Cathode of Li–S Batteries
,”
J. Phys. Chem. C
,
120
(
8
), pp.
4296
4305
.
15.
Fu
,
Y.
,
Su
,
Y.-S.
, and
Manthiram
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Sulfur–Carbon Nanocomposite Cathodes Improved by an Amphiphilic Block Copolymer for High-Rate Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
4
(
11
), pp.
6046
6052
.
16.
Yuan
,
Z.
,
Peng
,
H.-J.
,
Hou
,
T.-Z.
,
Huang
,
J.-Q.
,
Chen
,
C.-M.
,
Wang
,
D.-W.
,
Cheng
,
X.-B.
,
Wei
,
F.
, and
Zhang
,
Q.
,
2016
, “
Powering Lithium–Sulfur Battery Performance by Propelling Polysulfide Redox at Sulfiphilic Hosts
,”
Nano Lett.
,
16
(
1
), pp.
519
527
.
17.
Babu
,
G.
,
Ababtain
,
K.
,
Ng
,
K. Y. S.
, and
Arava
,
L. M. R.
,
2015
, “
Electrocatalysis of Lithium Polysulfides: Current Collectors as Electrodes in Li/S Battery Configuration
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
5
, p.
8763
.
18.
Thangavel
,
N. K.
,
Gopalakrishnan
,
D.
, and
Arava
,
L. M. R.
,
2017
, “
Understanding Heterogeneous Electrocatalysis of Lithium Polysulfide Redox on Pt and WS2 Surfaces
,”
J. Phys. Chem. C
,
121
(23), pp. 12718–12725.
19.
Al Salem
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Stabilizing Polysulfide-Shuttle in a Li–S Battery Using Transition Metal Carbide Nanostructures
,”
RSC Adv.
,
6
(
111
), pp.
110301
110306
.
20.
Aray
,
Y.
,
Zambrano
,
D.
,
Cornejo
,
M. H.
,
Ludeña
,
E. V.
,
Iza
,
P.
,
Vidal
,
A. B.
,
Coll
,
D. S.
,
Jímenez
,
D. M.
,
Henriquez
,
F.
, and
Paredes
,
C.
,
2014
, “
First-Principles Study of the Nature of Niobium Sulfide Catalyst for Hydrodesulfurization in Hydrotreating Conditions
,”
J. Phys. Chem. C
,
118
(
48
), pp.
27823
27832
.
21.
Nowak
,
I.
, and
Ziolek
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Niobium Compounds: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in Heterogeneous Catalysis
,”
Chem. Rev.
,
99
(
12
), pp.
3603
3624
.
22.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Ji
,
Q.
,
Ju
,
J.
,
Yuan
,
H.
,
Shi
,
J.
,
Gao
,
T.
,
Ma
,
D.
,
Liu
,
M.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Song
,
X.
,
Hwang
,
H. Y.
,
Cui
,
Y.
, and
Liu
,
Z.
,
2013
, “
Controlled Growth of High-Quality Monolayer WS2 Layers on Sapphire and Imaging Its Grain Boundary
,”
ACS Nano
,
7
(
10
), pp.
8963
8971
.
23.
Zhan
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Najmaei
,
S.
,
Ajayan
,
P. M.
, and
Lou
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Large-Area Vapor-Phase Growth and Characterization of MoS2 Atomic Layers on a SiO2 Substrate
,”
Small
,
8
(
7
), pp.
966
971
.
24.
Dash
,
J. K.
,
Chen
,
L.
,
Dinolfo
,
P. H.
,
Lu
,
T.-M.
, and
Wang
,
G.-C.
,
2015
, “
A Method Toward Fabricating Semiconducting 3R-NbS2 Ultrathin Films
,”
J. Phys. Chem. C
,
119
(
34
), pp.
19763
19771
.
25.
Ge
,
W.
,
Kawahara
,
K.
,
Tsuji
,
M.
, and
Ago
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Large-Scale Synthesis of NbS2 Nanosheets With Controlled Orientation on Graphene by Ambient Pressure CVD
,”
Nanoscale
,
5
(
13
), pp.
5773
5778
.
26.
Stephens
,
I. E. L.
,
Ducati
,
C.
, and
Fray
,
D. J.
,
2013
, “
Correlating Microstructure and Activity for Polysulfide Reduction and Oxidation at WS2 Electrocatalysts
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
160
(
6
), pp.
A757
A768
.
27.
Shao
,
Y.
,
Cheng
,
Y.
,
Duan
,
W.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Lin
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: A Selected Review
,”
ACS Catal.
,
5
(
12
), pp.
7288
7298
.
You do not currently have access to this content.