The water transport behavior of the cathode catalyst layer (CCL) in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated by comparing the performance of several cells containing different microporous layers (MPLs). The capillary pressure and effective diffusivity of the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the CCL play an important role in the transport of water generated in the PEMFC. Experimental data for various inlet humidities and air stoichiometries were evaluated using the modified water vapor activity with the capillary pressure of the MPL. The capillary pressures in the MPLs and CCL are approximated using a polynomial function of liquid saturation. There was a significant increase in the diffusion resistance of oxygen in the CCL, while that in the MPLs and CCL was moderate, which indicates that the CCL is susceptible to flooding.

References

References
1.
Qi
,
Z.
, and
Kaufman
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Improvement of Water Management by a Microporous Sublayer for PEM Fuel Cells
,”
J. Power Sources
,
109
(
1
), pp.
38
46
.
2.
Pasaogullari
,
U.
, and
Wang
,
C. Y.
,
2004
, “
Two-Phase Transport and the Role of Micro-Porous Layer in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
49
(
25
), pp.
4359
4369
.
3.
Pasaogullari
,
U.
,
Wang
,
C. Y.
, and
Chen
,
K. S.
,
2005
, “
Two-Phase Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells With Bilayer Cathode Gas Diffusion Media
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
152
(
8
), pp.
A1574
A1582
.
4.
Lin
,
G.
, and
Nguyen
,
T. V.
,
2005
, “
Effect of Thickness and Hydrophobic Polymer Content of the Gas Diffusion Layer on Electrode Flooding Level in a PEMFC
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
152
(
10
), pp.
A1942
A1948
.
5.
Wang
,
X. L.
,
Zhang
,
H. M.
,
Zhang
,
J. L.
,
Xu
,
H. F.
,
Tian
,
Z. Q.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Zhong
,
H. X.
,
Liang
,
Y. M.
, and
Yi
,
B. L.
,
2006
, “
Micro-Porous Layer With Composite Carbon Black for PEM Fuel Cells
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
51
(
23
), pp.
4909
4915
.
6.
Ramasamy
,
R. P.
,
Kumbur
,
E. C.
,
Mench
,
M. M.
,
Liu
,
W.
,
Moore
,
D.
, and
Murthy
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Investigation of Macro- and Micro-Porous Layer Interaction in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
33
(
13
), pp.
3351
3367
.
7.
Owejan
,
J. P.
,
Owejan
,
J. E.
,
Gu
,
W.
,
Trabold
,
T. A.
,
Tighe
,
T. W.
, and
Mathias
,
M. F.
,
2010
, “
Water Transport Mechanisms in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
157
(
10
), pp.
B1456
B1464
.
8.
Martinez
,
M. J.
,
Shimpalee
,
S.
, and
Van Zee
,
J. W.
,
2009
, “
Measurement of MacMullin Numbers for PEMFC Gas-Diffusion Media
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
156
(
1
), pp.
B80
B85
.
9.
Martinez
,
M. J.
,
Cui
,
T.
,
Shimpalee
,
S.
,
Seraphin
,
S.
,
Duong
,
B.
, and
Van Zee
,
J. W.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Microporous Layer on Mac Mullin Number of Carbon Paper Gas Diffusion Layer
,”
J. Power Sources
,
207
, pp.
91
100
.
10.
Gostick
,
J. T.
,
Ioannidis
,
M. A.
,
Fowler
,
M. W.
, and
Pritzker
,
M. D.
,
2009
, “
On the Role of the Microporous Layer in PEMFC Operation
,”
Electrochem. Commun.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
576
579
.
11.
Weber
,
A. Z.
, and
Newman
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Effects of Microporous Layers in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
152
(
4
), pp.
A677
A688
.
12.
Atiyeh
,
H. K.
,
Karan
,
K.
,
Peppley
,
B.
,
Phoenix
,
A.
,
Halliop
,
E.
, and
Pharoah
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Role of a Microporous Layer on the Water Transport and Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell
,”
J. Power Sources
,
170
(
1
), pp.
111
121
.
13.
Karan
,
K.
,
Atiyeh
,
H. K.
,
Phoenix
,
A.
,
Halliop
,
E.
, and
Pharoah
,
J.
,
2007
, “
An Experimental Investigation of Water Transport in PEMFC
,”
Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.
,
10
(
2
), pp.
B34
B38
.
14.
Weber
,
A. Z.
,
Darling
,
R. M.
, and
Newman
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Modeling Two-Phase Behavior in PEFCs
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
151
(
10
), pp.
A1715
A1727
.
15.
Nishiyama
,
E.
, and
Murahashi
,
T.
,
2011
, “
Water Transport Characteristics in the Gas Diffusion Media of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell—Role of Microporous Layer
,”
J. Power Sources
,
196
(
4
), pp.
1847
1854
.
16.
Tanuma
,
T.
, and
Kinoshita
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Impact of Cathode Fabrication on Fuel Cell Performance
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
161
(
1
), pp.
F94
F98
.
17.
Konno
,
N.
,
Mizuno
,
S.
,
Nakaji
,
H.
, and
Ishikawa
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Development of Compact and High Performance Fuel Cell Stack
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 2015-01-1175.
18.
Eikerling
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Water Management in Cathode Catalyst Layers of PEM Fuel Cells: A Structure–Based Model
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
153
(
3
), pp.
E58
E70
.
19.
Liu
,
J.
, and
Eikerling
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Model of Cathode Catalyst Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: The Role of Porous Structure and Water Accumulation
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
53
(
13
), pp.
4435
4446
.
20.
Nguyen
,
T. V.
,
Lin
,
G.
,
Ohn
,
H.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Hussey
,
D. S.
,
Jacobson
,
D. L.
, and
Arif
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Measurements of Two-Phase Flow Properties of the Porous Media Used in PEM Fuel Cells
,”
ECS Trans.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
415
423
.
21.
Wang
,
X.
, and
Nguyen
,
T. V.
,
2008
, “
Modeling the Effects of Capillary Property of Porous Media on the Performance of the Cathode of a PEMFC
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
155
(
11
), pp.
B1085
B1092
.
22.
Kusoglu
,
A.
,
Kwong
,
A.
,
Clark
,
K. T.
,
Gunterman
,
H. P.
, and
Weber
,
A. Z.
,
2012
, “
Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
159
(
9
), pp.
F530
F535
.
23.
Tomadakis
,
M. M.
, and
Robertson
,
T. J.
,
2005
, “
Viscous Permeability of Random Fiber Structures: Comparison of Electrical and Diffusion Estimates With Experimental and Analytical Results
,”
J. Compos. Mater.
,
39
(
2
), pp.
163
188
.
24.
Kumbur
,
E. C.
,
Sharp
,
K. V.
, and
Mench
,
M. M.
,
2007
, “
Validated Leverett Approach for Multiphase Flow in PEFC Diffusion Media 1. Hydrophobicity Effect
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
154
(
12
), pp.
B1295
B1304
.
25.
Adamson
,
A. W.
, and
Gast
,
A. P.
,
1997
,
Physical Chemistry of Surfaces
,
Wiley
,
New York
, Chap.10.
26.
Wood
,
D. L.
,
Rulison
,
C.
, and
Borup
,
R. L.
,
2010
, “
Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
157
(
2
), pp.
B195
B206
.
27.
Uchida
,
M.
,
Aoyama
,
Y.
,
Eda
,
N.
, and
Ohta
,
A.
,
1995
, “
Investigation of the Microstructure in the Catalyst Layer and Effects of Bothe Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer and PTFE-Loaded Carbon on the Catalyst Layer of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
142
(
12
), pp.
4143
4149
.
28.
Uchida
,
M.
,
Fukuoka
,
Y.
,
Sugawara
,
Y.
,
Eda
,
N.
, and
Ohta
,
A.
,
1996
, “
Effects of Microstructure of Carbon Support in the Catalyst Layer on the Performance of Polymer–Electrolyte Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
143
(
7
), pp.
2245
2252
.
29.
Weber
,
A. Z.
, and
Newman
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Transport in Polymer–Electrolyte Membranes
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
151
(
2
), pp.
A311
A325
.
30.
Tanuma
,
T.
, and
Kinoshita
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Impact of Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) on Water Transport in PEFCs
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
159
(
2
), pp.
B150
B154
.
31.
Owens
,
D. K.
, and
Wendt
,
R. C.
,
1964
, “
Estimation of Surface Free Energy of Polymers
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
13
(
8
), pp.
1741
1747
.
32.
Mench
,
M.
,
2008
,
Fuel Cell Engines
,
Wiley
,
New York
, Chap. 5.
33.
Lister
,
S.
, and
Djilali
,
N.
,
2005
,
Transport Phenomena in Fuel Cells
,
WIT Press
,
Southampton, UK
, Chap 5.
34.
Koido
,
T.
,
Furusawa
,
T.
, and
Moriyama
,
K.
,
2008
, “
An Approach to Modeling Two-Phase Transport in the Gas Diffusion Layer of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
,”
J. Power Sources
,
175
(
1
), pp.
127
136
.
35.
Inoue
,
G.
,
Matsukura
,
Y.
, and
Minemoto
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Evaluation of Gas Diffusion Performance in Wet GDL With 3D Pore Network Model
,”
ECS Trans.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
1519
1527
.
36.
Nishiyama
,
E.
, and
Murahashi
,
T.
,
2011
, “
Permeability of a PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layer Based on Morphology
,”
ECS Trans.
,
41
(
1
), pp.
2021
2031
.
37.
Springer
,
T. E.
,
Zawodzinski
,
T. A.
, and
Gottesfeld
,
S.
,
1991
, “
Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
138
(
8
), pp.
2334
2342
.
38.
Motupally
,
S.
,
Becker
,
A. J.
, and
Weidner
,
J. W.
,
2000
, “
Diffusion of Water in Nafion 115 Membranes
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
147
(
9
), pp.
3171
3177
.
39.
O'Hayre
,
R. P.
,
Cha
,
S. W.
,
Collela
,
W.
, and
Prinz
,
F. B.
,
2006
,
Fuel Cell Fundamentals
,
Wiley
,
New York
, Chap. 4.
You do not currently have access to this content.