The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing hardware-in-the-loop simulation. To assess the long-term stability of the SOFC part of the system, electrochemical degradation due to operating conditions such as current density and fuel utilization have been incorporated into the SOFC model and successfully recreated in real time. The mathematical expression for degradation rate was obtained through the analysis of empirical voltage versus time plots for different current densities and fuel utilizations.

References

References
1.
Hughes
,
D.
,
Wepfer
,
W. J.
,
Davies
,
K.
,
Haynes
,
C.
, and
Tucker
,
D.
,
2011
, “
A Real-Time Spatial SOFC Model for Hardware—Based Simulation of Hybrid Systems
,”
ASME
Paper No. FuelCell2011-54591.10.1115/FuelCell2011-54591
2.
Tucker
,
D.
,
2009
, “
The Role of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Advanced Hybrid Power Systems of the Future
,”
Electrochem. Soc. Interface
,
18
(
3
), pp.
25
28
.
3.
Haga
,
K.
,
Adachi
,
S.
,
Shiratori
,
Y.
,
Itoh
,
K.
, and
Sasaki
,
K.
,
2008
, “
Poisoning of SOFC Anodes by Various Fuel Impurities
,”
Solid State Ionics
,
179
(
27–32
), pp.
1427
1431
.10.1016/j.ssi.2008.02.062
4.
Offer
,
G. J.
, and
Brandon
,
N. P.
,
2009
, “
The Effect of Current Density and Temperature on the Degradation of Nickel Cermet Electrodes by Carbon Monoxide in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
64
(
10
), pp.
2291
2300
.10.1016/j.ces.2009.01.037
5.
Bao
,
J.
,
Krishnan
,
G. N.
,
Jayaweera
,
P.
,
Perez-Mariano
,
J.
, and
Sanjurjo
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Various Coal Contaminants on the Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Part I. Accelerated Testing
,”
J. Power Sources
,
193
(
2
), pp.
607
616
.10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.04.034
6.
Park
,
K.
,
Yu
,
S.
,
Bae
,
J.
,
Kim
,
H.
, and
Ko
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Fast Performance Degradation of SOFC Caused by Cathode Delamination in Long-Term Testing
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
35
(
11
), pp.
8670
8677
.10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.05.005
7.
Vladikova
,
D. E.
,
Stoynov
,
Z. B.
,
Barbucci
,
A.
, and
Viviani
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Impedance Studies of Cathode/Electrolyte Behaviour in SOFC
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
53
(
25
), pp.
7491
7499
.10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.037
8.
Hagen
,
A.
,
Barfod
,
R.
, and
Hendriksen
,
P. V.
,
2006
, “
Degradation of Anode Supported SOFCs as a Function of Temperature and Current Load
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
153
(
6
), pp.
A1165
A1171
.10.1149/1.2193400
9.
Hagen
,
A.
,
Liu
,
Y. L.
,
Barfod
,
R.
, and
Hendriksen
,
P. V.
,
2008
, “
Assessment of the Cathode Contribution to the Degradation of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
,”
J. Electrochem. Soc.
,
155
(
10
), pp.
B1047
B1052
.10.1149/1.2960938
10.
Comminges
,
C.
,
Fu
,
Q. X.
,
Zahid
,
M.
,
Yousfi Steiner
,
N.
, and
Bucheli
,
O.
,
2012
, “
Monitoring the Degradation of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack During 10,000 h via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
,”
Electrochim. Acta
,
59
(
9
), pp.
367
375
.10.1016/j.electacta.2011.10.080
11.
Komatsu
,
T.
,
Watanabe
,
K.
,
Arakawa
,
M.
, and
Hajime
,
A.
,
2009
, “
A Long-Term Degradation Study of Power Generation Characteristics of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using LaNi(Fe)O3 Electrode
,”
J. Power Sources
,
193
(
2
), pp.
585
588
.10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.04.014
12.
Komatsu
,
T.
,
Yoshida
,
Y.
,
Watanabe
,
K.
,
Chiba
,
R.
,
Taguchi
,
H.
,
Orui
,
H.
, and
Arai
,
H.
,
2010
, “
Degradation Behavior of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using LNF Cathode as Function of Current Load
,”
J. Power Sources
,
195
(
17
), pp.
5601
5605
.10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.03.078
13.
ThyssenKrupp, “
2010Crofer22APU Material Data Sheet No. 4046
,”
ThyssenKrupp
,
Werdohl, Germany
.
You do not currently have access to this content.