This research investigates the placement of spargers on thermofluid effects within a column photobioreactor (PBR) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study compares two configurations, each with three rows of spargers spaced at different widths: one with spargers spaced 7.62 cm apart and the other spaced 10.16 cm apart. These spargers are modeled in a PBR with overall dimensions of 34.29 cm in length, 15.25 cm in width, and 34.28 cm in height. The objective of this research is to predict the performance of PBRs using CFD, which can be used to improve the design of PBRs used to grow microalgae for biofuels and bioproducts.

References

References
1.
Bari
,
G. S.
,
Suess
,
T. N.
,
Gent
,
S.
, and
Anderson
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Effects of Different Sparger Spacings Within A Column Photobioreactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2012-87898.10.1115/IMECE2012-87898
2.
Christi
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Photobioreactor Engineering for Microalgal Biofuels
,”
J. Biotechnol.
,
136
(
Supplement(0)
), pp.
S13
S14
.10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.07.1810
3.
Morweiser
,
M.
,
Kruse
,
O.
,
Hankamer
,
B.
, and
Posten
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Developments and Perspectives of Photobioreactors for Biofuel Production
,”
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
,
87
(
4
), pp.
1291
1301
.10.1007/s00253-010-2697-x
4.
Luo
,
H.-P.
, and
Al-Dahhan
,
M. H.
,
2004
, “
Analyzing and Modeling of Photobioreactors by Combining First Principles of Physiology and Hydrodynamics
,”
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
,
85
(
4
), pp.
382
393
.10.1002/bit.10831
5.
Pruvost
,
J.
,
Legrand
,
J.
,
Legentilhomme
,
P.
, and
Muller-Feuga
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Limiting Light Conditions: Flow Effect
,”
AIChE J.
,
48
(
5
), pp.
1109
1120
.10.1002/aic.690480520
6.
Pruvost
,
J.
,
Pottier
,
L.
, and
Legrand
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic and Mixing Conditions in a Torus Photobioreactor
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
61
(
14
), pp.
4476
4489
.10.1016/j.ces.2006.02.027
7.
Sato
,
T.
,
Usui
,
S.
,
Tsuchiya
,
Y.
, and
Kondo
,
Y.
,
2006
, “
Invention of Outdoor Closed Type Photobioreactor for Microalgae
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
47
(
6
), pp.
791
799
.10.1016/j.enconman.2005.06.010
8.
Yu
,
G.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Shen
,
G.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Lin
,
C.
,
Wu
,
H.
, and
Chen
,
Z.
,
2009
, “
A Novel Method Using CFD to Optimize the Inner Structure Parameters of Flat Photobioreactors
,”
J. Appl. Phycol.
,
21
(
6
), pp.
719
727
.10.1007/s10811-009-9407-z
9.
Kommareddy
,
A.
, and
Anderson
,
G.
,
2004
, “
Analysis of Currents and Mixing in a Modified Bubble Column Reactor
,”
2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting
,
Ottawa, ON, Canada
, Aug. 1–4, Paper No. 043071.10.13031/2013.17681
10.
Vijayan
,
M.
,
Schlaberg
,
H. I.
, and
Wang
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Effects of Sparger Geometry on the Mechanism of Flow Pattern Transition in a Bubble Column
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
130
(
2–3
), pp.
171
178
.10.1016/j.cej.2006.06.024
11.
Shimizu
,
K.
,
Takada
,
S.
,
Minekawa
,
K.
, and
Kawase
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
Phenomenological Model for Bubble Column Reactors: Prediction of Gas Hold-Ups and Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficients
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
78
(
1
), pp.
21
28
.10.1016/S1385-8947(99)00165-5
12.
Bari
,
G. S.
,
Gent
,
S. P.
,
Suess
,
T. N.
, and
Anderson
,
G. A.
,
2012
, “
Predicting Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Effects of Sparger Geometry and Placement Within a Column Photobioreactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
,”
ASME
Paper No. ES2012-91139.10.1115/ES2012-91139
13.
Mortuza
,
S.
,
Gent
,
S. P.
,
Kommareddy
,
A.
, and
Anderson
,
G. A.
,
2012
, “
Investigation of Bubble and Fluid Flow Patterns Within a Column Photobioreactor
,”
ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol.
,
9
(
3
), p.
031006
.10.1115/1.4006052
14.
Oden
,
T. J.
,
2006
, “Simulation-Based Engineering Science: Revolutionizing Engineering Science Through Simulation”,
National Science Foundation
, Arlington, VA, available at: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/reports/sbes_final_report.pdf
15.
Grace
,
J. R.
, and
Li
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Complementarity of CFD, Experimentation and Reactor Models for Solving Challenging Fluidization Problems
,”
Particuology
,
8
(
6
), pp.
498
500
.10.1016/j.partic.2010.09.003
16.
Hutmacher
,
D. W.
, and
Singh
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Computational Fluid Dynamics for Improved Bioreactor Design and 3D Culture
,”
Trends Biotechnol.
,
26
(
4
), pp.
166
172
.10.1016/j.tibtech.2007.11.012
17.
Buwa
,
V. V.
, and
Ranade
,
V. V.
,
2002
, “
Dynamics of Gas-Liquid Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column: Experiments and Single/Multi-Group CFD Simulations
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
57
(
22-23
), pp.
4715
4736
.10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00274-9
18.
Dhotre
,
M. T.
, and
Joshi
,
J. B.
,
2007
, “
Design of a Gas Distributor: Three-Dimensional CFD Simulation of a Coupled System Consisting of a Gas Chamber and a Bubble Column
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
125
(
3
), pp.
149
163
.10.1016/j.cej.2006.08.027
19.
Dhotre
,
M. T.
,
Vitankar
,
V. S.
, and
Joshi
,
J. B.
,
2005
, “
CFD Simulation of Steady State Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
108
(
1–2
), pp.
117
125
.10.1016/j.cej.2005.01.006
20.
Simonnet
,
M.
,
Gentric
,
C.
,
Olmos
,
E.
, and
Midoux
,
N.
,
2008
, “
CFD Simulation of the Flow Field in a Bubble Column Reactor: Importance of the Drag Force Formulation to Describe Regime Transitions
,”
Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif.
,
47
(
9–10
), pp.
1726
1737
.10.1016/j.cep.2007.08.015
21.
Vitankar
,
V. S.
,
Dhotre
,
M. T.
, and
Joshi
,
J. B.
,
2002
, “
A Low Reynolds Number k-ε Model for the Prediction of Flow Pattern and Pressure Drop in Bubble Column Reactors
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
57
(
16
), pp.
3235
3250
.10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00196-3
22.
Ugwu
,
C. U.
,
Aoyagi
,
H.
, and
Uchiyama
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Photobioreactors for Mass Cultivation of Algae
,”
Bioresour. Technol.
,
99
(
10
), pp.
4021
4028
.10.1016/j.biortech.2007.01.046
23.
Krishna
,
R.
, and
van Baten
,
J. M.
,
2003
, “
Mass Transfer in Bubble Columns
,”
Catal. Today
,
79–80
, pp.
67
75
.10.1016/S0920-5861(03)00046-4
24.
Urseanu
,
M. L.
, and
Krishna
,
R.
,
2000
,
Scaling Up Bubble Column Reactors
,
University of Amsterdam
,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
.
25.
Mortuza
,
S. M.
,
Kommareddy
,
A.
,
Gent
,
S.
, and
Anderson
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Computational and Experimental Investigation of Bubble Circulation Patterns Within Column Photobioreactor
,”
ASME
Paper No. ES2011-54205.10.1115/ES2011-54205
26.
Sato
,
T.
,
Yamada
,
D.
, and
Hirabayashi
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Development of Virtual Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture Considering Turbulent Flow and Flashing Light Effect
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
51
(
6
), pp.
1196
1201
.10.1016/j.enconman.2009.12.030
27.
Mortuza
,
S. M.
,
Kommareddy
,
A.
,
Gent
,
S.
, and
Anderson
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Computational and Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Within a Column Photobioreactor
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2011-63947.10.1115/IMECE2011-63947
28.
Sarkar
,
S.
, and
Balakrishnan
,
L.
,
1990
, “
Application of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Model to the Compressible Shear Layer
,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, NASA CR-182002, ICASE Report No. 90-18.
29.
Wen
,
Z.
, and
Johnson
,
M. B.
,
2009
, “
Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuel Production
,” Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Virginia State University, Blacksburg, VA, available at: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-886/442-886.html
30.
Wolfshtein
,
M.
,
1969
, “
The Velocity and Temperature Distribution in One-Dimensional Flow With Turbulence Augmentation and Pressure Gradient
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
12
(
3
), pp.
301
318
.10.1016/0017-9310(69)90012-X
31.
Schiller
,
L.
, and
Naumann
,
A.
,
1933
, “
Ueber die grundlegenden Berechnungen bei der Schwerkraftaufbereitung
,”
VDI Zeits.
,
77
(
12
), pp.
318
320
.
32.
Sánchez Mirón
,
A.
,
García Camacho
,
F.
,
Contreras Gómez
,
A.
,
Grima
,
E. M.
, and
Chisti
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
Bubble-Column and Airlift Photobioreactors for Algal Culture
,”
AIChE J.
,
46
(
9
), pp.
1872
1887
.10.1002/aic.690460915
33.
El Wakil
,
M. M.
,
Ueyhara
,
O. A.
, and
Myers
,
P. S.
,
1954
, “
A Theoretical Investigation of the Heating-Up Period of Injected Fuel Droplets Vaporizing in Air
,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, NACA Techical Note 3179.
34.
Ranz
,
W. E.
, and
Marshall
,
W. R.
,
1952
, “
Evaporation From Drops Parts I and II
,”
Chem. Eng. Prog.
,
48
(
3
), pp.
141
146
.
35.
Chakraborty
,
D.
,
Siva Rama Krishna
,
G.
,
Chakraborty
,
S.
, and
Meikap
,
B. C.
,
2009
, “
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Sparged Gas—Liquid Contactor for Fine Bubble Generation
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
48
(
24
), pp.
11225
11229
.10.1021/ie901322e
You do not currently have access to this content.