The sol-gel technique is a versatile and relatively simple method, easily adapted to synthesize complex metal oxide formulations. The sol-gel technique takes advantage of the structural directing properties and templating characteristics of nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants to produce porous iridium oxide with samarium doped ceria (SDC) nanoparticles. The nanopowders were calcined at a temperature of 950 °C and the crystalline nanostructures and compositions were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The textural characteristics and particle morphology were respectively characterized by nitrogen sorption at 77.5 K and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were characterized by using Kittec squadro, solid oxide fuel cell testing equipment, with air and hydrogen as the gases used. The nature of the surfactant influenced the particle morphology, pore diameter, pore size, crystallite size, surface area, and electrochemical properties.

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