Wind Turbine Technology: Fundamental Concepts in Wind Turbine Engineering, Second Edition
4 Commercial Wind Turbine Systems and Applications
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This chapter describes commercial wind turbine systems in the U.S. and other countries, including their application for generating electrical energy as well water pumping. Commercial wind systems, as defined here, include production turbines as well as pre-production turbines that could be manufactured commercially within the next five years. Although the history of wind system development was discussed in the previous chapters, some historical details will be introduced here as well, when they help describe the development of commercial markets and products. This discussion of commercial systems and applications considers large-, medium-, and small-scale horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), and also reviews vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs).
Wind power applications described include wind power stations delivering electricity on utility grids, distributed (dispersed) turbines on utility grids, turbines on isolated and∕or small electrical grid systems, and stand-alone units for mechanical and electrical power. Trends in cost of energy (COE) from wind systems in various applications are also discussed. Operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements for current systems are included that reflect the commercial experience, including typical maintenance scenarios, associated costs, and trends within the industry.