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Heat transfer during ice formation has been studied in detail, in papers by Lin, S. and Z. Jiang (Reference ), and by London, A. L. and R. A. Seban (Reference ). In the present sensitivity study, planar ice formation is considered. References  and  also treat ice formation in cylindrical and spherical shapes. In the present heat transfer analysis, thermal capacitance of ice is neglected; in other words, a linear temperature profile through the ice thickness is assumed. Ice thermophysical properties are assumed to be constants and are considered at sea level conditions. Lake water is assumed to be fresh. For proper ice formation heat transfer modeling, lake water temperature is assumed to be greater than zero degrees centigrade, and the atmosphere's temperature is assumed to be less than zero degrees centigrade:
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