IV. BIO, WASTE, AND GEO THERMAL
Oil shortages in the 1970s stimulated the development of new technologies to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and liquid fuels. Combined firing of biomass with coal reduces emissions, provides opportunities for high efficiency, and reduces fossil carbon use. Cofiring and markets for transportation fuels have stimulated global trading in biomass fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass to liquid fuels creates opportunities for co-products, such as biochar, which can help sequester carbon and offset emissions from fossil fuels. This chapter provides an overview of biomass fuels and resources, the biomass power industry, conventional and new technologies, and future trends. Advances in combustion and gasification are described. Thermal and biological conversions to liquid fuels for heat, power, and transportation are described with implications for stationary use.