Pipeline Integrity Assurance: A Practical Approach
1 General and Historical Information
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Oil and gas, in general, have been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze and also for warfare. The importance of oil in the world economy evolved slowly (Figure 1-1) (McKnight 1998). Wood and coal were generally used for heating and cooking. The Industrial Revolution subsequently generated an increasing need for energy, which was fuelled mainly by coal. During this period, it was discovered that kerosene could be extracted from crude oil and used as a light and heating fuel. Petroleum was in great demand by the end of the 1800s, and its use thus spread (Yergin 1992)....