Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
Essentials of Electronic Packaging: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Puligandla Viswanadham, PhD
Puligandla Viswanadham, PhD
Adjunct Faculty,
University of Texas at Arlington
, Retired Principal Scientist,
Nokia Research Center
, Formerly Senior Member of the Technical Staff, Raytheon-TI Systems, Retired Advisory Engineer, International Business Machines
Search for other works by this author on:
No. of Pages:
ASME Press
Publication date:

“Success has no enemies and failures have no friends,” and “failures are stepping stones to success.” These two adages, so applicable in our daily lives, also have immense significance in technology development and implementation, and electronic packaging is no exception. The focus of this chapter is failure modes and mechanisms and starting with a definition of failure, a comprehensive account of failures that are likely to occur in electronic assemblies, their mechanisms, and to enable root cause determination and prevent them from occurring.

Despite the best efforts in design, materials selection, components selection, and best manufacturing practices, electronic appliances do experience failures. One encounters what are called escapes that would result in malfunctioning. These escapes can occur during product design, materials or component selection, manufacturing, and also product testing. Also, as technology advances, new product designs and innovative packaging concepts evolve, and as a result, new failure types and mechanisms are likely to be encountered.

Failure, for the purpose of this book, is defined as cessation of the capability of a component, subsystem, or system to perform its intended or designed function or functions as per the specifications. For example, when a 100 W light bulb is turned on, and one finds that it only puts out the light of a 15 W bulb, or if a motor that is supposed to turn at 3000 rpm when switched on turns at only 1000 rpm, or if it does not turn at all, are all certainly not performing their designed functions. All these instances are examples of failure.

Design-Related Exposures
Manufacturing Defects and Failures
Laminate or PWB Failures
Conductive Anodic Filaments
Package Failures
Interconnection Failures
Copper–Tin Intermetallics
Nickel–Tin Intermetallics
Gold–Tin Intermetallics
Silver–Tin Intermetallics
Lead (Pb)-Free Solders
Mechanical Load Failures
Tin Whiskers
Suggested Reading
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal