4 Fabrication, Assembly, and Installation
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This chapter discusses the various elements involved in fabricating, assembling, and installing process piping systems for the bioprocessing industry. The discussion on fabrication will cover the various aspects of welding, both metallic and nonmetallic components together to create an assembly, touching particularly on the use of autogenous orbital welding for metallic piping and the various joining processes for nonmetallic materials. Also discussed is the hygienic clamp joint and why it is so necessary to adhere to torque values in tightening clamp bolts. The final topic of discussion is system installation, where it all comes together.