10. Random Turbulence Excitation Forces Due to Two-Phase Flow
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A majority of process heat exchangers operate with a two-phase mixture on the shell-side. Today’s economics require that thermal efficiency is continually improved in these units. Such improvement invariably leads to higher flow rates and more flexible tubes. To prevent tube failures in these heat exchangers, an improved understanding of random excitation mechanisms in two-phase cross flow is required. Random turbulence excitation forces can cause low-amplitude tube motion that will result in long-term fretting wear or fatigue damage.