Chapter 3. Part B: Torrefaction of Lignocellulosic Agricultural Waste into Biocoal
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Today’s agriculture industry within the United States (US) produces a wide variety of biomass with an estimated tonnage of available biomass well over 500 million dry tons per year at prices less than $60/ton . The predominantly available biomass types in the US are cultured chemical crops, crop residuals, wood, wood wastes, animal processing wastes, and manures. About half of these agricultural biomasses are actually waste materials. Alternatively, over 240 million dry tons of municipal solids wastes (MSW) are produced each year within the US with over 80% thermally reactive  making MSW another viable feedstock for producing solid fuels....