Mankind is quickly approaching an age where fossil fuels, particularly coal, and petroleum and natural gas to some extent, have reached a point where they are under economic and policy pressures for meeting societal needs. Alternative energetic technologies are continually being developed and deployed, yet fossil fuels still supply more than 80% of the global energy demand. This need for finding alternative energetic sources lies amongst three key drivers: resource economics, geo-political conditions, and climate change. Development of promising alternative energy sources must be accelerated and the most promising options fully commercialized. Agricultural systems are uniquely positioned to supplement the present hydrocarbon economy by providing food, fuel and fiber to satisfy a growing global population.