Computer Vision for Structural Dynamics and Health Monitoring
2. Development of a Computer Vision Sensor for Structural Displacement Measurement
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A computer vision sensor system measures displacements of an object by tracking pixel movements of selected targets on the object from video images captured by a digital camera. This chapter first describes typical hardware components for a computer vision sensor system and then introduces fundamental knowledge, algorithms, and computer vision software for measuring displacement time histories from video images. General principles are presented, including various template-matching techniques for tracking targets and coordinate conversion methods for determining calibration factors to convert image pixel displacements to physical displacements. Vision sensor software packages are developed for real-time multipoint displacement measurement based on two representative template-matching techniques: upsampled cross-correlation (UCC) and orientation code matching (OCM).