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This chapter provides users of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V, Nondestructive Examination (NDE), an insight into the significant Section V requirements, the NDE methods addressed therein, and the applicability of the ASME Code NDE methodology to Section V and other sections of the ASME book. It explains when and how to use the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standards. The chapter traces the history of Section V and outlines its organization. It highlights the need for users to understand the relationship of Section V to other ASME Code sections to ensure that all contract requirements are satisfied. Section V is divided into two basic subsections. Subsection A contains Articles 1 through 19, including Mandatory and Nonmandatory appendices that address general requirements, test methods, and specific Code requirements. Subsection B contains the ASTM Standards (Articles 22 through 31 with Mandatory Appendix II – Standard Units Used in Equations and Nonmandatory Appendix A, Guidance for the Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units in the ASME). The chapter covers each of the 19 articles, including the various NDE techniques such as radiographic examination, ultrasonic examination for welds and materials, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, eddy current examination, visual examination, and leak testing. Additional NDE techniques discussed in the chapter are acoustic emission examination for fiber-reinforced plastic vessels and metallic vessels, acoustic emission monitoring of pressure boundary components, alternating current field measurement, magnetic flux leakage examination, remote field testing examination, acoustic pulse reflectometry examination, and guide wave examination for pipe testing. Eddy current array examination methodology is being considered for incorporation into Section V.