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This chapter discusses the general requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code that are applicable to all Code Classes of components, including steel vessels, piping, pumps, and valves, as well as concrete structures. It identifies applicability limits of Section XI, addresses interfaces with any applicable regulatory requirements, and explains the use of Code Editions and Addenda and Code Cases. The chapter describes periodic nondestructive examination (NDE) and pressure testing used to ensure the integrity of components (other than containment vessels) within the scope of the Code’s jurisdiction. The requirements of NDE are specified, ranging from personnel qualification to the overall conduct of the examinations, as are the types of NDE required, including sample expansion, and the frequency of examinations required, such as from the detection of defects. Periodic pressure testing and pressure tests following repair/replacement activities are addressed. The chapter also addresses the responsibilities and Quality Assurance Program requirements of the different entities involved in the examination and testing of a nuclear power plant. It analyzes controversial issues and topics of current concern, including the applicability of recent United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letters and Information Notices and describes the ways in which the reader can use recent Section XI revisions to his or her advantage. The chapter references some published ASME interpretations to explain how the Code requirements can be applied to commonly encountered problems. It contains information on risk-informed inservice inspection and reliability integrity management programs for non-light-water reactors. The chapter presents a note on a new Section XI, Division 2, concerning high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, which is anticipated to be published in 2019.