Simulating the Effect of In-Nozzle Cavitation on Liquid Atomisation Using a Three-Phase Model
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The aim of this article is to present a fully compressible three-phase (liquid, vapor, air, and mixture) cavitation model and its application to the simulation of in-nozzle cavitation effects on liquid atomization. The model employs a combination of barotropic cavitation model with an implicit sharp interface capturing Volume of Fluid (VoF) approximation. The results from the simulation are compared against the experimental results obtained by (1) for injection of water into the air from a stepped nozzle. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model is utilized for resolving turbulence. Simulations are performed for a condition where developing cavitation is observed. Model validation is achieved by qualitative comparison against the available images for the cavitation, spray pattern. The model predictions suggest that the experimentally observed void inside the nozzle is not purely vapor, but a mixture of both vapor and back-flowing air. The simulation also identified periodic air entrainment that occurs at developing cavitation condition which further improves primary atomization.