Marketing of Engineering Consultancy Services: A Global Perspective
Chapter 8 Defining Engineering Consultancy Marketing
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For service industry, it was observed that the traditional marketing mix as coined by Professor Neil Borden (twelve elements) and summed up by McCarthy into 4Ps namely product, price, place and promotion were inadequate. Booms and Bitner  have suggested an expanded marketing mix model. Magrath  endorsed such an approach and categorically pointed out that when marketing services, 4Ps are not enough. He said that another three Ps, namely personnel, physical facilities and process management must be included in the marketing mix. A number of marketing research studies supplement the relevance of each of the 7Ps. Like, Shostack  gave due emphasis on physical evidence. Cowell  identified the issues in process management. Judd  came out with the importance of people. Following the trend, Agrawal  expanded the mix of marketing elements to eight variables by including a very important P i.e. pace. Agrawal suggested that the pace of the marketing response is controllable by marketers and therefore is to be included in the marketing response as are the rest of the marketing elements.